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Aegle marmelos (Bael plant) is one of the most common ayurvedic plant traditionally used in medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases. The present study was emphasized on the antibacterial activity of the Agale marmeols leaves extract on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeuroginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, and Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Methanolic extract was found to be effective against all organisms. Dual extracts were also found to be effective in our study against the test organisms. Various concentrations of the extracts (25μl-125μl) as well as the Effect of temperature (25˚ C-100 ˚ C) on the antibacterial activity was also studied. The highest antibacterial activity was found to be around 1.2cm reported in Bacillus subtilis and the lowest antibacterial activity was found to be around 0.3cm reported in Pseudomonas aeuroginosa. Our results suggest that Bael leaves can be used in treating infections caused by test organisms.
Aegle marmelos, Bacillus subtilis, MRSA, antibacterial activity, Effect of temperature.
Medicinal plants are rich source of novel drugs that forms the ingredients in traditional systems of modern medicine. It is said that Ayurveda, the science of medicinal plants has taken its origin from India. Ancient scriptures written by saints explained the important values of medicinal plants as a cure for dreadful diseases [1, 2]. In recent years, multiple drug and chemical resistance in both human and plant pathogenic microorganisms has been developed due to indiscriminate use of synthetic drugs. Plants are found to possess many biological active components which played a major role against various diseases Plants belonging to the family Rutaceae are one of the oldest Indian medicinal plants, one such plant Aegle marmelos, commonly referred to as Bilva, Bael and Golden Apple takes its origin from Eastern Ghats and Middle India and is commonly found in dry parts of our country including Himalayas. Bael is said to Play an important role in Bioremediation. Bael is said to possess properties such as anti-diarrheal, anti-dysenteric, anti-pyretic, anti-inflammatory, anti-lipidemic , anti-fungal activity and acts as an astringent. The ripe fruit is used as a laxative [4, 5, 6]; root bark is used as a remedy in hypochondriasis, melancholia and palpitation of the heart. Leaves act as a remedy for asthmatic treatments [7, 8]. As the plant supports many medicinal properties, it is mainly used in the treatment of many metabolic and inflammatory disorders. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the Aegle marmelos leaves against pathogenic microorganisms along with studying the phytochemical properties of the plant.
The results from our study conclude that Agele marmeols (Bael plant) possess significant antibacterial activity against gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Phytochemical constituents of the plant are one among the contributing elements for the antibacterial activity. Further isolation and purification of these constituents would establish the role of the active components in traditional medicine. The role of these components needs to be further characterised and the detail pharmacological properties have to be studied in order to determine the side effects. Clinical trials have to be performed to authenticate the antibacterial activity of the Bael plant. The other parts of the plant such as root and stem also have to be studied to confirm its use in medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases.
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