Enhanced Growth in the Clonal Propagated Plants

Author Name: *Sunitha Panigrahi, Dr. K. Aruna Lakshmi, NikkithaUmesh, Wajid Ali Khan
Author Email: sritha17@yahoo.com

Abstract

Micro propagation has the potential to provide very high multiplication rates of selected true genotypes. It allows rapid production of high quality, disease free and uniform planting materials irrespective of weather or season. The paper highlights studies on the same, outlines potential of using single to multiple co-cultures combinations of microbe that were in symbiotic relationship with plants and thus promoting greater nutritional assimilation by plants. The microorganisms were obtained from six different soil locations and were identified using gram staining and IMVIC techniques. Later they were enumerated using the serial dilutions. These bacteria were then inoculated to the tissue cultured plants in a series of triple combination and in different concentrations. The result obtained was compared against the control. The key parameters of plant growth are reported and discussed. There is enough experimental evidence with bacteria (bacterization) and vesicular arbuscularmycorrhiza (mycorrhization) inoculations to recommend utilization of this technology in commercial micropropagation. There was an increased growth in all the macro and micro nutrients and protein formation and increased the immunity and performance of the cultured plants, fidelity test was conducted to prove that plants had the same genetic make up. Techniques have found increasing use in the conservation of agricultural crops and threatened plants in recent years and this trend is likely to continue as it is significantly contributing to agricultural growth.

Keywords

Micropropagation, microbe combinations, inoculation.

Introduction

The vegetative micropropagation of fruit, ornamental and forest species is the main tool for producing genetically homogenous plants in good phytosanitary conditions and in large numbers[1] Micropropagation protocols have advantages over traditional clonal propagation methods including high multiplication rates and production of disease free plants[2] Shoot tip culture was considered a better method for micropropagation, since it produced plants phenotypically similar to the mother plant and gave a much more rapid multiplication rate when compared to the other procedure[3] In the last 10 years, micropropagation has shown spectacular development. However, at present the widespread use of micropropagation is restricted for several reasons, one of these being that a high percentage of micropropagated plants can be lost or damaged in the acclimatization stage. Due to the special environment in vitro, it is difficult to produce plants which can be acclimatized to the outside environment [4] It is impossible to discuss the acclimatization of tissue cultured plants without evaluation of the intrinsic qualities of the micropropagated material. Compared to traditionally propagated plants, tissue cultured plants are aberrant from the anatomical and physiological point of view. Different approaches allow to correct this abnormal behavior, of “normal looking” plants while they are still in culture. Most corrections occur with respect to water, housekeeping and photosynthetic behaviour of micropropagated material. Rooting can be induced in vitro. Different greenhouse or growing room setups have been evaluated under experimental and commercial conditions[5] Leafy or chlorophyllous explants of a number of plant species currently micropropagated have been found to have high photosynthetic ability[6] During the first days after transplanting micropropagated plants to greenhouse conditions, in vitro leaves are the only source to cover metabolic demands and to sustain plants’ adaptation and regrowth[7] The greenhouse and field have substantially lower relative humidity, higher light levels, and septic environments that are stressful to micropropagated plants compared to in vitro conditions. Most species grown in vitro require an acclimatization process in order to insure that sufficient numbers of plants survive and grow vigorously when transferred to soil[8]. After transfer from the in vitro to the ex-vitro conditions the plantlets have to correct the above-mentioned abnormalities. Therefore, after ex-vitro transplantation plantlets usually need some weeks of acclimatization[9]. During acclimatization, the rooted plantlets develop fully functional roots and leaves, and shoot growth is initiated or accelerated. Growth of micropropagated plants is vigorous and seems invariably to be characterized by greater branching. These characteristics affect the field performance of micropropagated plants, a subject that is being studied extensively in fruit crops and forest trees [10].
In this review, six types of bacteria’s were collect from different regions of Andhra Pradesh, identified, isolated, purified and were then inoculated to various cultured plants in combination of three sets. Different bacterial combinations in different concentrations showed difference in the growth of the root length, shoot length and number of leaves. These changes were observed, compared and recorded.

Conclusion

This research concludes the beneficial effect of the selected microbial agents to increase the growth and survival rate of the micropropagated plants by inoculating them into it. Micropropagation often produces more robust plants, leading to accelerated growth compared to similar plants produced by conventional methods – like seeds or cuttings. Plants have extraordinarily high fecundity rate and also increases mortality rate. Therefore we can conclude that these bacterial combinations provide the best plant growth in terms of root, shoot, number of leaves etc.

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