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Globular protein Bovine Serum Albumin is water soluble and is sensitive to Low Power mm Wave (Micro wave) irradiation leading to Coagulation at the isoelectric Point.The objective of the work was to study the effect of these radiations on the coagulation and light absorbance of purified bovine serum albumin protein. When a heat stress is induced by a Low Power mm Wave, an aggregation of the molecules leading to coagulation occurs; comparatively at high temperature coefficient. The Bovine Serum Albumin Solution maintained at a pH of 3.5 after irradiation by Low Power mm Wave remained clear, the sedimentation constant was multiples almost 8 times (indicating aggregation and agglutination)when compared to the native sample. When the Bovine Serum Albumin sample was irradiated with a frequency of 72.13 GHz. a small change in sedimentation coefficient took place indicating primary coagulation. When the frequency was increased to 98.52 GHz. there was a rapid increase in the sedimentation coefficient and high level of coagulation indicating almost complete denaturation of Bovine Serum Albumin. As a matter of fact frequency at 114.35 GHz. did not make much change in the sedimentation coefficient and coagulation remained almost constant. Similarly Bovine Serum Albumin treated at 56 °C for 25 minutes showed equivalent coagulation as compared to Low Power mm wave irradiation within the range of 72.13 GHz. to 114. 35 GHz. as analysed by U.V/Vis. Spectroscopy (samples treated with Coomassie Brilliant Blue G250) at 595 nm showed relatively similar absorbance.
Bovine Serum Albumin (also known as BSA or Fraction V) is a serum albumin Protein derived from ruminants. BSA has 585 Amino acid residues of Molecular weight 66.5 kDa (Fig. 2). It has an iso-electric point of 4.7 at 25 °C in water. Extinction coefficient of 43,824 M−1cm−1 at 279 nm.Dimensions: 140 X 40 X 40 Å3 (prolate ellipsoid where a = b < c). BSA has numerous biochemical applications including ELISAs (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay), immunoblots, and immunohistochemistry. It is also used as a nutrient in cell and microbial culture. In restriction digests, BSA is used to stabilize some enzymes during digestion of DNA and to prevent adhesion of the enzyme to reaction tubes, pipette tips, and other vessels .
In this research paper the effect of microwaves (millimetre wave) on the coagulation of BSA is observed. Microwaves are radio waves which falls under the category of electromagnetic waves with wavelengths ranging from as long as one meter to as short as one millimeter. with frequencies between 300 MHz (0.3 GHz) and 300 GHz. This broad definition includes both UHF and EHF (millimeter waves), and various sources use different boundaries. In all cases, microwaves include the entire SHF band (3 to 30 GHz, or 10 to 1 cm) at minimum, with RF engineering often putting the lower boundary at 1 GHz (30 cm), and the upper around 100 GHz (3 mm).
Microwave radiations with shorter wavelengths are called “Millimeter waves”, Terahertz radiation or even T-rays. Definitions differ for millimeter wave band, which the IEEE defines in the frequency range of 110 GHz to 300 GHz.
This work uses millimetre waves in E band and W band of microwave frequencies specified by IEEE standards lying between 72 to 115 GHz. The basic principle of resonance has been implied in the carried work for generation of desired frequency which has been selected by the cavity resonator. The microwave source that has been used for generation of RF signal is basically a signal generator that generates an amplified continuous RF wave signal which has been applied as input to the hollow end of the resonator. Irradiated samples showed significant agglutinability and a very high sedimentation coefficient. The protein was found to be denatured. Similarly Bovine Serum Albumin treated at 56 °C for 25 minutes showed equivalent coagulation as compared to Low Power mm wave irradiation within the range of 72.13 GHz. to 114. 35 GHz.
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