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The effect of bioengineered zinc nanoparticles and zinc on biochemical analysis was investigated on the Cicer arietinum Seedlings. The extracellular synthesis of zinc nanoparticles with an average size of 47.6 nm was characterized by Transmission electron microscopy. Heavy metals are important and essential components in plant growth. However, when they increase in concentration, heavy metals show symptoms such as delay in growth and inhibition of biochemical reactions. Zinc treated seedlings showed decreased total sugars, reduced sugars and proteins compared to zinc nanoparticles treated seedlings. The positive effect of Bioengeneed Nano Particles on seeds and seedlings could have significant economic impact on agriculture and horticulture.
Cicer arietinum Seedlings, Zinc, Zinc nanoparticles, Total sugars, Reducing sugars, Proteins
Increasing numbers of commercial products, from cosmetics to medicine, incorporate manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs) that can be accidentally or incidentally released into the environment. [1, 2, 3] Though the use of nanoparticles is increasing, yet their environmental impact is poorly understood. There are many gaps in our knowledge on the effect of NPs. There are many unresolved problems and new challenges concerning the biological effects of these NPs. Concern over the potentially harmful effects of such nanoparticles have stimulated the advent of nanotoxicology as a unique and significant research discipline . However, the majority of the published nanotoxicology articles have focused on mammalian cytotoxicity or impacts to animals and bacteria and only a few studies have considered the toxicity of MNMs to plants .
There is a critical knowledge gap in development of phytotoxicity. Nanoparticles entering wastewater streams may predominantly be incorporated into sewage sludge and agricultural land . Most of the studies are focused on the potential toxicity of NPs to plants where, both positive and negative effects have been reported . Among the positive effects recorded, nano-TiO2 was observed to promote the growth of Spinach . Some of the research found that Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) could enhance root growth of onion (Allium cepa) and cucumber (Cucumis sativa) . The fate and transport of nanoparticles in the environment and also the impacts of those materials on plants has not yet been fully characterized. The present investigation shows positive effect of bioengineered zinc nanoparticles on growth and biochemical characteristics of Bengal gram seedlings.
Based on the results obtained from the study, it can be speculated that the fate of the heavy metals that are transported into the soil can be reduced by the microorganisms in the soil. These bioengineered nanoparticles at low concentrations are non toxic to seed germination. High concentrations of metal nanoparticles may be toxic to the plants, but bioavailability of these nanoparticles to the plants is also important. It is therefore recommended to undertake further research on the potential impacts of manufactured nanoparticles on agricultural and environmental systems.
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