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Industrial enterprises, being sources of environmental pollution, directly and indirectly affect human health. In this regard, the problem of the effects of atmospheric emissions on the respiratory system and the immune system is extremely important. The task was to study the adaptive capacity of the organism of laboratory rats, which are an adequate model of the human body in conditions of air pollution by emissions from a metallurgical industrial complex. The complex effect of atmospheric emissions from a metallurgical enterprise on growing laboratory rats was studied in a full-scale experiment, when experimental animals were placed in specially equipped chambers installed at different distances from the industrial complex: at a distance of 1000 m (the first group of animals — 25 individuals) and 20000 m (the second group of animals – 25 individuals). In addition to these animals, three more groups of laboratory rats (25 animals in each group) placed in chambers with a specially prescribed mode, into which purified air was continuously fed with the addition of phenol, as one of the components of the atmospheric emissions of a metallurgical enterprise, participated in the experiment. 3.0 mg/m3, 0.1 mg/m3, 0.001 mg/m3. Assessment of the adaptive capabilities of animals was carried out for four months, that is, from the neonatal period to the period of puberty according to a number of parameters, after which histological studies of the respiratory organs and spleen structures were performed. Histological studies revealed that in the organs of rats of the first group, changes in the type of irritation prevailed with areas of atrophy of the mucous membrane of the bronchial mucosa, as well as hyperplasia of lymphoid structures of the spleen with an increase in the growth centers of lymphoid follicles, pathological changes in the investigated organs of animals of the second group defined as a slight hyperplasia tracheal gland hyperplasia lymphoid follicles of the spleen and the absence of any changes in bronchial structures throughout the observation period. In a full-scale experiment, the adaptive abilities of animals are significantly reduced in individuals of the first group, which is confirmed by histological studies: the presence of pronounced irreversible changes in the organs of immunogenesis, in the mucous membranes of the trachea and bronchi. Harmful substances of atmospheric emissions of industrial enterprises, both comprehensively and individually, as in the experiment presented – phenol, can disrupt the adaptation capabilities of the organism.
The life of a modern person in a city is fraught with many risks, which is especially characteristic of cities with a developed industrial infrastructure. Despite ongoing environmental protection measures, industrial enterprises continue to pollute the atmosphere, hydrosphere and soil, which cannot but affect the health of people and their health and safety . Metallurgical production today is guided by the law of the Russian Federation “On Environmental Protection”, which is the main legislative document in the field of environmental safety of metallurgy. The activities of enterprises are regulated by the Sanitary Rules and Health Ministry Standards . This document refers to the creation of sanitary protection zones (SPZ) near enterprises. The boundaries of the sanitary protection zone (SPZ) indicate the value of the most acceptable sanitary distance between the residential sector and enterprises, which guarantees a positive state of air in the atmosphere even in case of release of harmful untreated substances.
Obtained as a result of experimental studies, the data allowed to identify the causes of increased bronchovascular morbidity associated with morphological changes in the mucous membrane of the trachea, bronchi, spleen follicles. At the same time, irreversible destructive disorders in the respiratory organs and immunogenesis increased with the approach to the industrial complex, as well as with increasing concentration of phenol in the inhaled air
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