Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe: Analysis of State, Prospects and Opportunities for Cooperation against the Illegal Migration and Terrorism

Author Name(s): Rustem Sh. Davletgildeev, Sergey A. Kostin
Author Email: roustem.davletguildeev@kpfu.ru

Abstract

This paper analyzes the activities of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (formerly the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe), the largest regional organization to date, which includes 57 sovereign states. The Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) was conceived as a major geopolitical project, the purpose of which was to relieve international tensions in security matters. Such an ambitious task led to the transformation of the Conference into the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) which has become an important element in the architecture of European security. Rapid geopolitical changes in the conditions of uneven economic development of states objectively have influenced both the level of current threats and the formation of new threats in the field of security, among which international terrorism, illegal migration and human trafficking have become increasingly prominent. As you know, the OSCE has three areas of development, otherwise referred to as “three baskets” (the “three baskets” system) and the crisis in the development of relations in one direction does not mean that relations in other areas should be frozen. On the contrary, the observed crisis in relations in the framework of one of the “baskets” may allow states to concentrate their efforts in the other two. Then the OSCE, with its potential, will once again become a link in cooperation between states related to the prevention of such threats as international terrorism, illegal migration and human trafficking. The paper will analyze the OSCE activities regarding new possible institutional forms of cooperation related to the emergence of new threats to peace and security, in particular with regard to the possibility of cooperation in the field of illegal migration and combating terrorism, as well as possible ways to overcome the existing antagonistic contradictions in approaches to the development of European security systems. Keywords International Security; Illegal Migration; Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE); Regional Security; Cooperation; Terrorism; Human Trafficking Introduction The Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) was conceived as a major geopolitical project, with the aim of alleviating the existing international tension in security matters. This ambitious task subsequently allowed the transformation of the Conference to the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE or Organization), which became an important element in the architecture of European security. The sphere of interests and competencies of the OSCE is considered to be based on the principle of the three “baskets”, which is expressed in the form of the military-political, economic-ecological and human dimensions. In other words, these are issues related to the prevention of security threats due to possible military clashes of states, the prevention of economic and environmental disasters as factors affecting the level of stability and security, as well as threats caused by human rights violations and the proper functioning of democratic institutions. The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe has good experience in countering the “standard” challenges and threats that are measured by one of the “baskets”. Like everything else in this world, the Organization has experienced its boom and its recession. High hopes were placed first on the summit of leaders of countries in Astana (2010), which purpose was to address issues of quality improvement and reorganization of the OSCE. Later, hopes were placed on the Helsinki + 40 project which was supposed to launch the OSCE reform process. As a result, the unfolding Ukrainian crisis exposed all the weaknesses of the Organization related to the lack of effective institutional tools to prevent regional conflicts in current realities. Today, challenges that are “interdimensional” in nature, such as international terrorism, illegal migration and human trafficking, undermine the foundations of the national security of states. We believe that this circumstance can “push” countries to cooperate in the issues of developing a unified institutional framework that allows them to stop and prevent occurrence of the issues. We will try to talk about all this in the study. Materials and Methods The materials used in the work were international treaties, resolutions and decisions of regional international organizations, official statements by the heads of state, as well as doctrinal studies related to ensuring international

 

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