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The self-organizational ability of ad-hoc Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) have led them to be the most popular choice. Despite significant advancements in Wireless Sensor Networks, efficient energy consumption in the network remains one of the most important research challenges. Clustering sensor nodes and organizing them hierarchically have proven to be an effective method to provide better data aggregation and scalability for the sensor network while conserving limited energy. Topology control mechanisms promotes efficient energy consumption as it deals with the arrangement of the nodes. Topology acts as virtual backbone of the network, so a good topology control mechanism improves the overall network lifetime. There are various techniques for topology control such as Self-Organizing algorithms, Minimal Spanning Trees and Unit Disk Graphs which are taken as basis for the proposed algorithm. The proposed algorithm performs hierarchical clustering on the network in order establish optimal routing path from sensor nodes to sink node whilst conserving network resources.
Keywords Optimal Routing Path, Wireless Sensor Network, Topology Control
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) consists of randomly distributed wireless sensor nodes which are a large number of small sized, battery powered sensor nodes that have limited in battery energy, CPU power and communication capabilities. It consists of the area populated with distributed autonomous devices equipped with sensors to measure physical or environmental constants, For Example: Temperature, Pressure, Vibration, Emissions and many others. WSN are suitable for a great variety of environments and conditions, what broadens the scale of their applications. The applications for WSN involve tracking, monitoring, and controlling. WSN are mainly utilized for habitat monitoring, object tracking, nuclear reactor control, fire detection, traffic monitoring etc. WSN have limited power supply and hardware capability hence judicious use of resources is the key for having an energy efficient and durable network. For the same, unnecessary use of battery is avoided by communicating only for short periods of time (short bursts of time) since both transmitting and receiving are equally costly. Nodes are meant to collect data and transmit their information across the network towards the desired location (sink node). Without the provision of efficient methodology to gather and send data, due to enormous redundant messages being flooding in the network, sensor nodes might drain out of battery quickly. As a result various techniques have been designed to improve battery lifetime of nodes and prevent flooding of messages in network. One majorly used technique is Clustering.
The lifetime of a wireless sensor network is one of the most important parameters in study of WSNs. Since the resources available for a WSN are limited and continuously depleting, it is important to manage these resources efficiently. The hierarchical Clustering forming layers of CH and user-defined degree of each CH helps in load balancing and conserving energy reducing effect of network segmentation. This results in concentrated or Directed Flooding in network which forms the optimal route for nodes to communicate with sink.
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