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Electrical power generation scenario is changing across the world dramatically. This is basically due to the fast diminution of conventionally vital sources like coal, oil, natural gas, etc. The alternative solution is renewable energy (RE) sources as they are abundant in nature and freely available. They also help in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. This paper proposes a methodology for integration of RE sources, load scheduling, net metering and real time pricing (RTP) for the residential sector in India. The paper is presenting design, development and testing of an embedded system for a smart home. The proposed system offers and achieves a smart home vitality requirement by mounting sustainable power sources, scheduling and organizing the power flow during peak period, shoulder period and off-peak period. In this process, if excess energy is left, it will be feed to the grid; thereby earning the credits. This method of earning the credits is called net metering. The Global system for mobile communication (GSM) is used for wireless, two-way communication between the proposed system and the user for optimizing the energy consumption and energy bill. A model for the proposed system was designed, implemented and tested by using a controlled load bank to simulate scaled real house consumption pattern and results & findings were reported.
Keywords Power Consumption, Renewable Energy, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Energy Management System, Smart Home, GSM, Real Time Pricing.
The traditional energy resources used for the generation of electricity are decaying day by day and will be gradually vanishing in a couple of years. This has shifted the focus to sustainable energy sources which have the potential to replace fossil fuels, and also reduce CO2 and other dangerous gas emissions. Amongst all renewable energy sources, the solar photovoltaic system is more popular and a promising approach to solve the contradiction around the energy and economic development in the world [1-3]. Some of the developed countries such as United States (US), Germany and Japan have already started energy generation based on RE sources on a large scale. Germany has implemented rooftop PV for one million families. Many families have installed solar photovoltaic power generation to fulfill their own requirement as well as to provide excess power to private “mini power stations”, which are capable of supplying an endless stream of electric power to the utility grid . In 2000, the contribution of RE was 0.56% , whereas in 2016, it increased to 5.66%  of total global energy production [4-8]. It is seen that the sustainable energy market had an amazing growth in the past couple of years. As costs are decreasing, wind and solar are becoming more and more popular alternative to fossil fuel. China remains the leading player, but India is progressively moving to the center stage.
This paper proposes a scheme of development of SHEMS for Indian residential consumers, which integrates RE sources, load scheduling, net metering and a real time tariff. A hardware for the home energy management system with GSM communication module has been designed for 10 lighting loads. ATmega family based micro-controller has been used to control and execute the commands. Also peripherals like energy meter, current sensor, triac circuit, relay driver and LCD display have been used to measure energy flow, current flow, load power switching, power line switching and to display data respectively. The purpose behind the development of hardware is to reduce electricity bill of residential customers in India by offering dynamic pricing, load scheduling, RE sources and net metering. The proposed scheme shows the reduction in the consumer bill by 34.81% and saving by 65.18%. Also, during off peak hours and shoulder hours, primarily battery will run scheduled load and secondarily will feed to the grid to earn the credits.
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