Cyber Loafing at Work Place – A Literature Review

Author Name(s): Ms. Sonali Rushiya, Prof. Kanchan Tolani
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In the present era, a large amount of attention is dedicated to technological advancements which have created a courageous novel work place. It has revolutionized the method in which work is carried out, and how workers/ employees can improve their productivity and efficiency. But, new opportunities and avenues for people to misbehave has been opened by entrance of technology. The study focuses, the act of employees using their companies internet access for personal use during work hour is known as cyber loafing. Cyber loafing is a type of production deviance. The study represents the relationship between cyber loafing and three important variables which are perceived organisational control, fear of formal punishment and physical leadership closeness as understood by employees. The previous study on cyber loafing, needs to be expanded by considering the impact of personality and some past unexplored situational factors. The power of big five personality factors is also tested. Whereas, on the amount of cyber loafing the existence of an internet usage policy and apparent work meaningfulness is also examined. There are two types of cyber loafing, minor cyber loafing for example employees sending and receiving personal mail at office hour) and serious cyber loafing for example online gambling, exploring adult oriented websites. Perception of employees about their co-worker and manager standards also supports to cyber loafing. These are related to minor cyber loafing not serious cyber loafing. The external focus of control also leads to other counter productive work behaviours related to minor and serious cyber loafing.

Keywords Cyber Loafing, Big Five Personality Traits, Cyber Slacking, Internet Access.


From the 21st century, there is no doubt that advanced technology will change the scenario of diverse domains of life. There is only one technology i.e. internet which has remarkable effect on individual’s life. In the new era businesses do not perform in traditional methods. Internet has provided a large platform to conduct business more easily and efficiently. Also a way of attractive employee performance. It helps businesses to reduce cost, decrease product cycle time and market products and services easily. Over last few years internet has also opened the access of deviant work place behaviour where employee explore the internet instead of performing work. It has been categorized as cyber loafing and also the deviant targeting the organisation as the cyber loafer acts directly against the company’s internet system. Lim defined internet misuse as any voluntary act of employees using company’s internet access during work time for exploring non job related web sites and receiving or sending emails of personal use. During study in organisation it is found that employee are more likely involve in misconduct when they think that their employer have been unfair or in the allocation of outcomes. Greenberg founds that employee counter react to unfair pay cuts by involving in theft. Skarlicki and Folgers founds that unfair employers are retaliated by employees more

Conclusion Workplace internet usage is growing evidently around the world. This rapid addition has led too much attention being focused on the strength of internet convention on yield; much of the work in this area has largely examined the positive productivity influences brought about through the Internet. The study is, noteworthy as it represents one of the few observed performances to delve into the area of how the Internet not only creates a brave new workplace by revolutionizing the ways in which work can be done but also transforms the ways in which loafing can be done. The modern system of control of cyber loafing should follow a condition list view, which refuse to consider lazy, highly faithful or negligent cyber loafers, but employees conditioned by an unfair/anomic environment. There should be our personal support for directorial learning as capable of integrating ‘knowledge’ and achieving those behavioral improvements within the complete organization. In result, knowledge is something more than mere data or information flow charged with data. It is a structure of the individual’s experiences, values (attitudes), information and know-how that permits both the gathering of new knowledge and effective action. The Employee may cyber loaf as they may think that, they are unjustly treated therefore perceive for cyber loafing to impact their work differently because they are bored or stressed. When employees cyber loaf they show a form of retaliation against seeming organizational inequality. They like to engage in counterproductive cyber loafing. It results in a purposeful waste of productive time. They may use it as an office plaything to escape from schedule work, especially those who are stressed with their work. Sometimes cyber loafing may be advantageous for the employees as it proves to be a short break for employees as working continuously may create stress and fatigue. It helps them zone out and re focus attention on work.

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