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According to the forecast that billions of devices will get connected to the internet by 2020, it will become a challenge for real time applications to handle this huge data generated while considering security issues as well as time constraints. The cloud faces many issues like high latency, network failure, low storage capacity, extra computational capability and high computational power due to centralized server approach. These issues can be resolved by using a new concept called, Fog Computing. Fog computing is an emerging research area for both academia and industry. In this paper, we view and summarize different use case scenarios of fog computing. The recent research contributions on security and privacy issues in fog computing are also discussed in this paper. Finally, this paper also highlights several open issues in fog computing thereby giving light on future research directions for implementing fog computing systems.
Keywords: Fog Computing, Internet of Things (IOT), Cloud Computing, Security, Privacy, Use Case Scenarios, Smart IOT Applications.
The Internet of things (IOT) will soon reach a stage when each and everything around us will be connected to the internet. IOT and cloud computing has advanced in a way to bring many significant advantages to different IOT applications. Internet of everything is now becoming a need to ease different activities in industries as well as household applications. It has a key role in designing smart homes, smart industries and smart cities as well. As huge amount of data is generated by the sensors and applications in IOT, the cloud, as a centralised server, may face issues like high latency, high computational power, inadequate storage, etc. The solution to these issues was first introduced by CISCO. This new technology called Fog Computing focuses on bringing the cloud closer to end devices. This reduces the time required to send the data to cloud, which is very important issue while handling real time applications, like navigation. Also, Fog Computing can be used to pre-process the data before sending it to cloud so that only required data will be forwarded. This will help to reduce the network bandwidth required. Fog computing is an intermediate layer between cloud and the terminal devices. The fog nodes or gateways are designed in such way as to store and pre-process the data locally before sending it to cloud. The data which requires storage for long time can only be sent to cloud. Instead of using cloud as single server, distributed approach of fog computing is used to reduce the computational power and storage capacity as shown in Figure 1. The fog nodes have significant storage and computational capabilities to handle the devices in their region. The fog nodes or gateways will communicate with terminal devices at one end and cloud at the other end.
Fog computing is an emerging area for IOT applications. Fog computing is an intermediate layer between the cloud and end users. In fog-based systems, major part of computing and processing of IOT data is performed at the fog nodes which reduces the response time in case of latency-sensitive applications. In this paper, our objective was to review recent use case scenarios of fog computing in the world so that the functionality and parameters used by these cases could be used for future research directions. This survey discussed about the improvement in performance of these use cases considering different parameters. We also presented the challenges faced by fog computing and the research contributions to handle security and privacy issues in fog computing. Based on our survey, we have highlighted some major issues which are needed to be addressed while integrating fog computing with IOT
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