Effective Cluster Head Election Technique using Multi-Parameter Approach for Wireless Sensor Network

Author Name(s): Simran Khiani, Dr. C. G. Dethe
Author Email: simran.khiani@raisoni.net

Abstract

Due to limited resources in wireless sensor network consumption of energy is a challenging issue. In order to improve the network efficiency, a multi parameter approach for selecting cluster head is proposed. The algorithm uses parameters such as remaining energy, distance to Base Station, intra cluster distance and neighboring nodes to select a Cluster Head. The Cluster Head will transfer data to the Base Station using chaining method. The proposed system is more energy aware than the existing systems as per the results.

Introduction

Wireless Sensor networks consist of large number of sensor nodes having low power capability, low memory and small size. These sensor nodes are distributed in large areas to observe various environmental parameters such as temperature, moisture, pressure etc. WSN is used in many applications such as object tracking, environment monitoring, military work etc. Due to several constraints such as power of battery, limited memory and limited computation power, designing WSNs for various applications is difficult. The important factor in sensor nodes is the energy level of battery. As the sensor nodes battery once deployed is not changeable, therefore energy consumption must be optimized. Many protocols have been developed in order to reduce energy consumption. One of the protocols is Hierarchical protocols [1] which use clustering technique. Clustering [2] method basically divides the network into several groups based on certain parameters. The clustering algorithm has two phases: a) Cluster head selection b) Data transmission. During the initial phase, a node which has maximum energy is chosen as a cluster head. The other nodes in the group are called as member nodes. In the second phase, member nodes sense various parameters such as temperature, pressure, moisture etc. from the environment and collected data is transmitted to the cluster head. The cluster member nodes will switch to idle mode after transmitting the data to the cluster head. It is the cluster head node which will combine all the received data and send it to the Base station for further processing. As the Cluster head only transmits the data to base station, the traffic near the Base station is reduced. Hence energy consumed is also reduced.

 

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