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Today, spatial analysis is one of the important issues of urban planners and practices. The spatial equilibrium in the public services of city reflects a well-organized and desirable urban structure that has expanded the city’s public services and utilities appropriately for the residents of the city. The city of Nowsud, one of the border towns of Iran with a population of about 1800 people and according to its sensitive regional situation, needs attention to the urban structure and the provision of public needs so that citizens will be satisfied with them and will require people to stay more in the city. The purpose of this paper is to examine how the level and per capita of the city’s public services are distributed and supplied. Educational spaces, green spaces, cultural space, etc. are important elements in the formation of urban neighborhoods and its bone structure. The research method is development method in terms of purpose and is descriptive and analectic in terms of the value and in order to measure the spatial distribution of applications, Williamson coefficients and Shannon entropy models as well as GIS ARC software were used to provide more detailed maps and analyzes. The results of the research show that the city of Nowsud is composed of two old and new main neighborhoods in its spatial structure. The population of the old neighborhood is about one-third of the city’s population, with a very high population density than the average of the city. But it should be noted that the placement of most public utilities and services in the new neighborhood is new so that so that the new neighborhood which is in the southern of the city, faces a surplus in per capita and the old neighborhood (the northern part of the city) faces with a huge shortage in per capita. Also, many land uses are not properly located due to their functional radius, which indicates the unfair spatial distribution of land uses as well as the inefficient spatial organization of this city, that finally, some suggestions have been presented to address it.
Space Justice, Nowsud City, Williamson Coefficient, Shannon Entropy Model
Today, economic and social inequalities are ever-increasing phenomena (Lees, 2010: 1 & UNDP, 2010), which have been taken into consideration since the early 1821s (Laurent, 2011: 263). In recent decades, one of the most important consequences of the accelerated growth of urbanization and the physical development of cities in the country has been the dismantling of the distribution system of service centers in the city, which has been the cause of social inequality of citizens in enjoying this service (Hatami Nejad, 2009: 71). This has made urban management not only difficult to provide public services but, in the era of globalization, has made efficient and effective management as a passive and contingent management (Varesi, 140: 2008). The concentration of service centers at a specific location, while creating bipolar and high and low areas in cities, causes an influx of consumer populations into these areas, so that on the one hand, environmental pressure, traffic, pollution, noise, air and so on. .., and on the other hand, due to the absorption of complementary, parallel applications, there is an intensification of spatial polarization in cities, in such a way that cities face drastic, unfavorable, and unsuitable environments with sustainable development (Khakpur, 187: 2009). Unfortunately, so far, the distribution of urban services has been more studied in the form of land use plans and per capita consumption criterion and there has been less importance for the accessibility of residents to urban services. While one of the main elements promoting the quality of the urban environment is the development of accessibility indicators, and optimal access is considered an essential factor for the success of the urban environment (Rahnama 137: 2006).
According to the distribution and location of important land uses of the city as well as the problem of providing their area and per capita in the city of Nowsud, which is a small and frontier city and which requires a lot of attention from the government, it is concluded that the city suffered from many in spatial injustice to provide and distribute the city’s public utilities, so that the northern part of the city, which is in line with the old neighborhood of the city, is neglected and many of the urban uses in the southern neighborhood of the city, or the newer neighborhoods with a surplus per capita, are lagging behind in this area and Proposals and suggestions for the fair provision of service land use as well as improvement of the spatial organization of the city are listed below, which we hope they will be considered in future plans and programs in order to some extent to overcome some of the city’s physical and social problems. The general part of all suggestions is to provide level and per capita of land uses that are considered as part of the city’s public utilities and need to be more appropriately distributed.
– Establishment of cultural centers by providing level and per capita as well as appropriate and compatible distribution with the culture of urban residents in the urban neighborhoods.
– Establishment of preschool centers with the fulfillment of the rules for the provision of per capita income, as well as layout rules covering the whole city and its neighborhoods.
– Establishment of the elementary school land use in the old neighborhood with the provision of per capita of neighborhood and location criteria.
– Provision and location appropriate green space and establish a link between green spaces of neighborhoods, preschools and preschools by meeting the criteria such as avoiding major roads and
– Establishment of health centers in the old neighborhood, meeting the criteria of location, access and per capita.
– Reducing the level of uses with surplus per capita or mixing them into other land uses to supply other uses, such as cultural and religious mixing land uses.
– Establishment of a sports complex in the old neighborhood and modification of the existing centers in the new neighborhood.
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