Author Email: email@example.com
This paper proposes a prudent implementation of robust pipeline in the domain of watermark based secure medical image transmission. The pipeline comprises of three stages, involving insertion of first watermark in the first stage and the second watermark in the second stage. Insertion of the watermark invokes a multi transform algorithm implemented in two steps. The first step is the application of Two-Way Arnold Transformation (TWAT) which scrambles the pixel locations in the source image, based on the number of cycles passed as one of the arguments to it, leading to a reduction in spatial correlation. The second step is 2-D Wavelet Transformation (WT) applied to the scrambled pixels that exploit the reduced correlation feature to generate the large values of coefficients. These large coefficient values can efficiently accommodate the wavelets coefficients of the inserted watermark. This step is a novel contribution compared to the existing models. Subsequently, the inverse WT is applied which concludes the first stage of the pipeline. The second stage of the pipeline also implements the same sequence of steps as that of the first stage but with the second watermark. In the final stage of the pipeline, the inverse TWAT is applied twice the number of times to the forward transformations applied in the first two stages. The entire pipeline is termed as Multi Transform based Robust Dual Water Marking (MTRDW). The pipeline is implemented on benchmark images with patient information and hospital logo as watermarks. The claimed features of the model are presented through computing the quality metrics such as SSIM, NCC and PSNR from the experiments conducted.
The Information technology applications in biomedicine are combined with the hospital environment medical data resulting into online dispensary which is also known as telemedicine . As a natural consequence, maintaining the confidentiality, integrity and robustness of data on the Internet against the various malicious attacks has become a complex task [2-4]. In the scenario of Networked Hospitals [5-11], exchanging medical information among the hospitals is a common phenomenon. Medical information (informatics) is generally presented in the form of images [12-13]. Medical Imaging is a process of creating images of the parts of the human body for the purposes of prognostic diagnosis purpose . Medical imaging techniques such as endoscopy, cardiology, radiology, ultrasound scan etc. are used to study the functioning of various parts of the human body. Telemedicine and image processing reduce the difficulty involved in exchanging medical images among hospitals manually. But, the distribution of medical information over the Internet poses a threat of illegal use of the information. Therefore, the security of medical image is a prime goal of medical image processing. Digital watermarking [15-16] techniques are used for providing the security  to any medical image which is commonly referred to as the cover image. Digital watermarking is a process of embedding some extra piece of information (watermark) which can be easily retrieved and compared with the original information to assess the authenticity of information. This technique is widely used for adding authentication information and provides additional security without affecting the contents of the cover image. Many researchers have proposed various digital watermarking techniques that are classified based on various parameters such as watermarking domain, type of document on which watermark is applied, human perception (vision and speech) and the applications. Broadly speaking there are two types of watermarking techniques: Visible and Invisible. Visible watermarking techniques render the watermark signal to be clearly visible in the cover image to mark the ownership of the content. The invisible watermarking inserts the watermark in such a way that it is not visible to the human eye.
The present work describes the concept of dual watermarking. The cover medical image was dual watermarked maintaining high robustness. The two different types of invisible watermarks used were the robust watermarks HLOGO and PID. The process started by applying TWAT to medical images followed by DWT and their inverse. The major part of the work involves the insertion and extraction of invisible watermarks and the outputs were tested by applying different attacks to the output images. The experimental results show the good quality watermarked images. And when attacks are applied, retrieved watermarks were not remarkably degraded. The above findings are evident from the values of the image metrics PSNR, SSIM and NCC.
- Zvikhachevskaya, G. Markarian and L. Mihailova, “Quality of Service Consideration for the Wireless Telemedicine and E-Health Services,” 2009 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, Budapest, 2009, pp. 1-6.
- Vellaisamy and V. Ramesh, “Inversion attack resilient zero-watermarking scheme for medical image authentication,” in IET Image Processing, vol. 8, no. 12, pp. 718-727, 12 2014.
- T. Naseem, I. M. Qureshi, Atta-ur-Rahman and M. Z. Muzaffar, “Robust watermarking for medical images resistant to geometric attacks,” 15th International Multitopic Conference (INMIC), Islamabad, 2012, pp. 224-228.
- M. Zain and A. R. M. Fauzi, “Medical Image Watermarking with Tamper Detection and Recovery,” International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, New York, NY, 2006, pp. 3270-3273.
- Kaur, O. Farooq, R. Singhal, B. S. Ahuja, “Digital watermarking of ECG data for secure wireless communication,” IEEE Transactions on Telecommunication and Computing, pp. 140-144, 2010.
- Ahjoku Amadi-Obi, Peadar Gilligan, Niall Owens, Cathal O’Donnell “Telemedicine in pre-hospital care: a review of telemedicine applications in the pre-hospital environment” International Journal of Emergency Medicine, Amadi-Obi. Springer 2014.
- Ronald S. Weinstein, Ana Maria Lopez, Bellal A. Joseph, Kristine A., Michael Holcomb, Gail P. Barker, Elizabeth A. Krupinski “Telemedicine, Telehealth, and Mobile Health Applications That Work: Opportunities and Barriers” The American journal Medicine,Volume 127, Issue 3, Pages 183–187,2014
- Paul T. Kim, Richard A. Falcone “The use of telemedicine in the care of the pediatric trauma patient” Seminars in Pediatric Surgery Elsevier Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 47–53, 2017.
- Raza,M. Hoa Le, N. Aslam, C. Hieu Le, N. Tam Le, T. Ly Le “Telehealth Technology: Potentials, Challenges and Research Directions for Developing Countries” IFMBE Proceedings. Springer, p. 233-236, 2016.
- Thelen, M. Czaplik, P. Meisen, D. Schilberg and S. Jeschke, “Using off-the-Shelf Medical Devices for Biomedical Signal Monitoring in a Telemedicine System for Emergency Medical Services,” in IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 117-123, Jan. 2015.
- Görs, M. Albert, K. Schwedhelm, C. Herrmann, K. Schilling, “Design of an Advanced Telemedicine System for Remote Supervision,” in IEEE Systems Journal, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 1089-1097, Sept. 2016.
- Coatrieux and L. Lecornu, “A review of Image Watermarking Applications in healthcare,” In proc. 28th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBS ’06. 2 pp. 4691-4694, 2006.
- M. Chao, C. M. Hsu, and S. G. Miaou, “A data-hidding technique with authentication, integration, and confidentiality for electronic patient records,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 46–53, Mar. 2002.
- Eswaraiah and E. Sreenivasa Reddy, “Robust medical image watermarking technique for accurate detection of tampers inside region of interest and recovering original region of interest,” in IET Image Processing, vol. 9, no. 8, pp. 615-625, 8 2015.
- Cox, M. Miller, J. Bloom, and C. Honsinger, “Digital watermarking,” Electron. Imaging, vol. 11, no. 3, p. 414, 2002.
- TianruiZong, Yong Xiang, IynkaranNatgunanathan, Song Guo, Wanlei Zhou, GlebBeliakov “Robust histogram shape-based method for image watermarking” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol 25(5), pp717 – 729, 2015.
- F Kallel, M. Kallel and M.S Bouhlel “A secure fragile watermarking algorithm for medical image authentication in the DCT domain” 2nd International Conference on Information & Communication Technologies, Vol 1, pp. 2019 – 2024, 2006.
- Abdel-Nabi and A. Al-Haj, “Efficient joint encryption and data hiding algorithm for medical images security,” 2017 8th International Conference on Information and Communication Systems (ICICS), Irbid, Jordan, 2017, pp. 147-152.
- Kelkar and H. Nemade, “Reversible watermarking in medical images using Histogram shifting method with improved security and embedding capacity,” IEEE International Conference on Recent Trends in Electronics, Information & Communication Technology (RTEICT), Bangalore, 2016, pp. 971-975.
- Ma and K. Sartipi, “Security middleware infrastructure for medical imaging system integration and monitoring,” 18th International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT), Pyeongchang, 2016, pp. 1-1.
- Naveen, T. Venkata Sainath Gupta, V. R. Satpute and A. S. Gandhi, “A simple and efficient approach for medical image security using chaos on EZW,” Eighth International Conference on Advances in Pattern Recognition (ICAPR), Kolkata, 2015, pp. 1-6.
- V. Rao, V. Meena Kumari, “Watermarking in Medical Imaging for Security and Authentication” Information Security Journal: A Global Perspective,T & F, Vol. 20, issue 20,2011.
- K. Lee, H. J. Kim, K. R. Kwon, et al, “Digital watermarking of medical image using ROI information” Enterprise Networking and Computing in Healthcare Industry, proceedings of 7th International Workshop on 23-25, pp. 404-407, June 2005.
- K. Lee, H. J. Kim, K. R. Kwon, et al, “ROI medical image Watermarking using DWT and Bit-plane,”, Asia-Pacific Conference on Communications, Perth, Western Australia, pp. 512-515, October 2005.
- Moniruzzaman and M. F. Hossain, “Watermarking approach of embedding patient facial information into RONI of Brain CT scan image,” 2015 18th International Conference on Computer and Information Technology (ICCIT), Dhaka, 2015, pp. 248-253.
- Nyeem, W. Boles and C. Boyd, “Utilizing Least Significant Bit-Planes of RONI Pixels for Medical Image Watermarking,” 2013 International Conference on Digital Image Computing: Techniques and Applications (DICTA), Hobart, TAS, 2013, pp. 1-8.
- Coatrieux, J. Montagner, H. Huang and C. Roux, “Mixed Reversible and RONI Watermarking for Medical Image Reliability Protection,” 29th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, Lyon, 2007, pp. 5653-5656.
- Singh and M. K. Dutta, “A blind & fragile watermarking scheme for tamper detection of medical images preserving ROI,” International Conference on Medical Imaging, m-Health and Emerging Communication Systems (MedCom), Greater Noida, 2014, pp. 230-234.
- Jamali, S. Samavi, N. Karimi, S. M. R. Soroushmehr, K. Ward and K. Najarian, “Robust watermarking in non-ROI of medical images based on DCT-DWT,” 38th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), Orlando, FL, 2016, pp. 1200-1203.
- Keshavarzian, “A new ROI and block based watermarking scheme using DWT,” 20th Iranian Conference on Electrical Engineering (ICEE2012), Tehran, 2012, pp. 1323-1328.
- Che, Z. Che and B. Ma, “An Improved Image Scrambling Algorithm,” Second International Conference on Genetic and Evolutionary Computing, Hubei, 2008, pp. 495-499
- Radu, D. A. Cristina, P. Iustin and F. Cristina, “A new fast chaos-based image scrambling algorithm,” 10th International Conference on Communications (COMM), Bucharest, 2014, pp. 1-4.
- Ni Rongrong, RuanQiuqi. “Image Information Hiding Algorithm with the Symetry of Arnold Transform” [J]. Journal of North Jiaotong University,26(2):25-28, 2002.
- Venkateswarlu Lendale, B. Eswara Reddy, N. Vyaghreswara Rao. “Arnold-wavelet based robust watermarking technique for medical images.” ICT in Business Industry & Government (ICTBIG), International Conference on. IEEE, 2016.
- Su, P. Han, Z. J. Jia, S. H. Liang, “Digital Watermarking Based on Two-Way Arnold Transform and QR Code”, Advanced Materials Research, Vols. 591-593, pp. 2564-2567, 2012
- [Giakoumaki, S. Pavlopoulos, and D. Koutouris, “A medical image watermarking scheme based on wavelet transform in engineering, medicine and biology society”, proceedings of the 25th Annual International Conference of the IEEE, vol. 1, pp. 856 – 859, 2003.
- Fakhari, E. Vahedi, and C. Lucas, “Protecting patient Privacy from unauthorized release of medical images using a bio-inspired wavelet based watermarking approach,” Digital Signal Processing, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 433 – 446, 2011.
- Taher, A. Kunhu and H. AlAhmad, “A new hybrid watermarking algorithm for MRI medical images using DWT and hash functions,” 38th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), Orlando, FL, 2016, pp. 1212-1215.
- Mettripun, “A robust medical image watermarking based on DWT for Patient Identification,” 13th International Conference on Electrical Engineering/Electronics, Computer, Telecommunications and Information Technology (ECTI-CON), Chiang Mai, 2016, pp. 1-6.
- Kunhu, F. Taher, H. Al-Ahmad, “A new multi watermarking algorithm for medical images using DWT and hash functions,” 11th International Conference on Innovations in Information Technology (IIT), Dubai, 2015, pp. 230-234
- Pardhu, B.R. Perli, “Digital image watermarking in frequency domain,” 2016 International Conference on Communication and Signal Processing (ICCSP), Melmaruvathur, 2016, pp. 0208-0211.
- Giakoumaki, S. Pavlopoulos, D. Koutsouris “Secure and efficient health data management through multiple watermarking on medical images” Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, springer, 2006.
- Giakoumaki, S. Pavlopoulos and D. Koutsouris, “A Multiple Watermarking Scheme Applied to Medical Image Management,” The 26th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2004, pp. 3241-3244.
- Bo Chen and Hong Shen “A new robust-fragile dual image watermarking algorithm” Multimedia and Ubiquitous Engineering, Third International Conference, pp 153 – 157, 2009.
- Xingyang Zhao and Jiyin Sun, “A novel third party’s double watermarking scheme reject to malice attack,” IEEE International Conference on Network Infrastructure and Digital Content, Beijing, 2009, pp. 1018-1022.
- Chen and H. Shen, “A New Robust-Fragile Double Image Watermarking Algorithm,” Third International Conference on Multimedia and Ubiquitous Engineering, Qingdao, 2009, pp. 153-157.
- Lu and W. Xia, “A Double Image Watermarking Based on Wavelet Domain and Krawtchouk Moments,” International Symposium on Computer Network and Multimedia Technology, Wuhan, 2009, pp. 1-4.
- Venkateswarlu, N. V. Rao and B. E. Reddy, “A Robust Double Watermarking Technique for Medical Images with Semi-fragility,” 2017 International Conference on Recent Advances in Electronics and Communication Technology (ICRAECT), Bangalore, India, 2017, pp. 126-131.
- Wang, A. C. Bovik, H. R. Sheikh, and E. P. Simoncelli, “Image quality assessment: From error visibility to structural similarity” IEEE Trans. Image Process., vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 600–612, Apr. 2004.
- Wen-Nung Lie, Tze-Liang Hsu and Guo-Shiang Lin, “Verification of image content integrity by using dual watermarking on wavelets domain,” Proceedings 2003 International Conference on Image Processing (Cat. No.03CH37429), 2003, pp. II-487-90 vol.3.
- Chen and H. Shen, “A New Robust-Fragile Double Image Watermarking Algorithm,” 2009 Third International Conference on Multimedia and Ubiquitous Engineering, Qingdao, 2009, pp. 153-157.
- Li Jing and F. Liu, “Double Zero-Watermarks Scheme Utilizing Scale Invariant Feature Transform and Log-Polar Mapping,” 2007 IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo, Beijing, 2007, pp. 2118-2121.
- X. Wang, H. L. Xu and S. Li, “Double Zero-watermarking Algorithm on Hyperchaotic Iteration,” 2009 Third International Symposium on Intelligent Information Technology Application, Nanchang, 2009, pp. 567-570
907 total views, 1 views today