The Active Immunity of the Person in Conditions of Anthropogenic Impact

Author Name: Ilnur F. Talipov, Irina D. Sitdikova, Elmira N. Mingazova, Dmitrii V. Lopushov, Lyubov A. Balabanova
Author Email: ilnurtalipov09@mail.ru

Abstract

The paper presents the results of the assessment of the military’s immune system functioning subject to age and distribution by contingent using spontaneous and stimulated NBT-test. The primary study was conducted with distribution by contingent. A spontaneous NBT-test showed that the neutrophil count in blood was higher than normal in 72.1% of the soldiers, officers, and retired military personnel. The average result of the induced NST-test among the active servicemen and retired military personnel showed an excessive neutrophil level in 53.9% of cases. The paper also reflects the results of the analysis of the NBT-test taking into account the age of the servicemen. The comparative analysis of the NBT-test results revealed that 53.9% of the age groups of 18-29 years and 30-39 years has values higher than normal (statistically significant difference). The results of the spontaneous NBT-test exceeding the norm in the stimulated NBT-test indicate an excessive concentration of neutrophils in the blood, and a possible presence of a chronic inflammatory process and a violation of the phagocytic activity of the organism.

Introduction

The conducted research in the field of public health and, in particular, medical services for servicemen, indicate the existence of a range of problems related to the health of draftees and contract servicemen [1, 2, 3]. The range of cause-effect relationships is revealed during the examination of the health status of retired servicemen [4, 5, 6, 7]. The state of morbidity indicators of servicemen, as well as the forecasts being built, indicate an increase in the incidence rate; the incidence of disability increases, the level of dismissal rate increases, and the death rate among military personnel decreases [8,9]. The legislative and regulatory level of the problem of medical care provides a coherent system of actions and consequences [10, 11]. However, currently, there is a lack of study of the problem level of health care such as personalized medicine [12,13,14]. Obviously, the assessment of the state of the immune system takes the central position in matters of personalized and preventive medicine [15,16]. At the present time, an essential level of knowledge is known for the formation of processes occurring in the human body, under the influence of environmental and production factors [17, 18, 19]. Ecological immunology distinguishes several stages of impairment and inhibition of the immune system. Determination of staging in immunological indices contributes to the development of a set of measures and the development of management decisions to reduce the impact of risk factors, the transition from one stage to another [20,21]. A variety of immunological indices form an urgent need to develop a complex of criteria that objectively describe the processes and changes [22].

Objective of the research: To evaluate the phagocytic activity of neutrophils by the spontaneous and induced nitro blue tetrazolium test in military personnel subject to their age and distribution by contingent.

Conclusion

The results of the studies described in this paper are devoted to the evaluation of active immunity parameters among the conscripted and contract servicemen and retired military personnel. These studies allow studying the state of the immune system over years. Significant and statistically reliable differences in the indicators of control and experience groups make it possible to assess the conditions of military service as risk factors. The studies show that the NBT-test (spontaneous and induced) objectively describes the processes in the immune system and can be recommended as a stage of immunological screening.

References

  1. Liuboshenko T.M. Study of the prevalence of secondary immune deficiencies among the population of the Russian Federation using cluster analysis // Modern problems of science and education. – 2014. – N 3; URL: www.science-education.ru/117-13821 (accessed date: 18.04.2015).
  2. Iarilin A.A. Immunology. M.: GEOTAR-Media, 2010. – p. 752.
  3. Russian Statistical Yearbook. M.: Rosstat, 2014. – p. 693.
  4. Gevondian N.M., Alekhin A.I., Gevondian V.S. // A new form of secondary immunological failure and its role in the development of pathology. Allergology and Immunology. – 2014 (15). – N 3. p. 199.
  5. The angina-related limitations at work questionnaire / DJ.Lerner, B.C.Amick III, S.Malspeis et al. // Qual. Life Res. – 1998. – Vol. 7. – P. 2332.
  6. The angina-related limitations at work questionnaire / DJ.Lerner, B.C.Amick III, S.Malspeis et al. // Qual. Life Res. – 1998. – Vol. 7. – P. 2332.
  7. Luss L.V.// Quality of life. – 2005. – N 4. – pp. 73-76.
  8. Gusakova N.V., Novikova I.A. Functional activity of neutrophils in chronic recurrent herpetic infection // Medical immunology. – 2013. – No. 2. – pp. 169-176.
  9. Span P.N., Grebenchtchikov N.I., Geurts-Moespot A., Sweep C. G. J. Concerns about mammaglobin assays. // Clinical Chemistry. – 2005.- v.51.- 2,-p.474-75
  10. Perrotti M., Rabbani F., Russo P. et al. Early prostate cancer detection and potential for surgical cure in men with poorly differentiated tumors.// Urology. – 1998. – Vol.52. – Р. 106-110.
  11. Kratnov A.E. The activity of glutathione reductase in neutrophils as an important marker of oxidative stress in ischemic heart disease // Russian Immunological Journal. – 2011. – No. 1. – pp. 45-49.
  12. Koh H., Kattan M.W., Scardino P.T. et al. A nomogram to predict seminal vesicle invasion by the extent and location of cancer in systematic biopsy results.// J Urol. – 2003. – Vol. 170. – Р. 1203-1208.
  13. Kurzanov A.N., Slavinskii A.A., Titov M.I., Balachevskii B.V. Effect of activation of opiate receptors of neutrophilic leukocytes on their functional metabolic activity // Medical immunology. – 2007. – No. 3. pp. 148 -149.
  14. Green S., Kumar V., Krust A. et al. Structural and functional domains of the estrogen receptor. // Cold Spring HarbSymp Quant Biol. – 1986. – Vol. 51(Pt 2). – Р. 751-758.
  15. Afzal MM, Jeshtadi A, Mohmmed AK. Study of neutrophilic function by nitrobluetetrazolium test in septicemias and immune deficiency diseases. Int J Res Health Sci. 2014 Apr 30; 2(2):581-90.
  16. Hyung Sim Choi, Jun Woo Kim , Young‐Nam Cha &Chaekyun Kim (2006) A Quantitative NitroblueTetrazolium Assay for Determining Intracellular Superoxide Anion Production in Phagocytic Cells, Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry, 27:1, 31-44, Published online: 06 Feb 2007.
  17. Amarasekara D. S., Wijerathna S., Fernando C., Udagama P. V., Cost-effective diagnosis of male oxidative stress using the nitrobluetetrazolium test: useful application for the developing world Andrologia, 2014, 46, 73–79.
  18. Doherty, S.T. The situational risks of young drivers: the i nfluence of passengers, time of day and day of week on accident rates / S.T. Doherty, J.S. An-drey, C. MacGregor // Accid. Prev. – 1998. – Vol. 30, №1. – P. 45-52.
  19. Izmerov N.F. Health protection of workers and prevention of occupational diseases at the present stage // Labor medicine and industrial ecology. – 2002. – No.1. – pp. 1-7
  20. Khaitov P.M., Pinegin B.V., Istamov Kh.I. Environmental immunology. – M., VNIRO, 1995. – p. 219.
  21. Colwell A.R., Fenn G.K. Standards of practice of internal medicine: methods of judjing its quality in hospitals // Ann. intern. – 1959. – Vol.51. – P. 821-832.
  22. Elinidi V.N., Anikeeva N.V., Maksimova N.A. Practical immunocytochemistry (practical recommendations). – St. P.: Publishing house of the All-Russian Center for Extreme and Radiation Medicine of the Ministry of Emergencies of Russia, 2002. – p. 25.

124 total views, 1 views today

Download File

About the author: admin