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The article considers the specific features of Gothic motifs interpretation in different countries and in different historical periods: Gothic motifs in baroque Italy and the Czech Republic, Germany and England of the 19th century and in more thoroughly in Russia. Medieval motifs coexist harmoniously with the elements of different styles in small forms. The symbolic fullness of the Gothic material environment proved to be spiritually attractive to the rationalistic era of the Industrial Revolution. Neo-Gothic has expressed the desire of house and interior customers to oppose an individual to a public. In different countries, Neo-Gothic had a specific semantic content from a romantic fairy tale to the manifesto dedicated to the triumph of technological progress. A wide interest for Gothic in Russia appears under the influence of Romantic literature. Russia and other countries experienced the contradiction between building exterior and interior. The use of the term “pseudo-Gothic” in Russia reveals a negative connotation in the evaluation of Neo-Gothic as an eclectic style. The review of Neo-Gothic buildings in Russia made it possible to single out three periods of neo-Gothicism with specific stylistic solutions. Neo-Gothic interpretation of the object-spatial environment sought to combine gothic aesthetics with the comfort of modern times. The interior and the furniture of the Neo-Gothic period are subject to a common ideological and conceptual design. The article reveals the value and aesthetic reasons for the turning to neo-Gothic.
Traditionally it is believed that the forgotten Gothic was reopened by romantics in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Let’s recall that the actual Gothic style, the style of a medieval city arose and existed in Western Europe from the 11th to the 15th century. Each of the subsequent large styles replaces the previous style, radically transforming or even denying it. But the development of the chamber architecture of living quarters and arts and crafts shows that there is no mutual denial between these styles in small forms. Even in the 18th century, the European household items made in the province, show the elements of design and decor, taken from the Gothic style, which are combined with details and ornamental motifs, both of Renaissance and Baroque. Great styles combine love for natural materials and decorative expressiveness. The decorative elements in them are comprehended aesthetically and combined into a holistic solidity of forms with its decorative juiciness and decorating elements. They are characterized by unity of an expressive form, the conformity to its purpose, an aesthetic comprehension of material plastics and an expressive, memorable decor.
A large number of neo-Gothic monuments were destroyed in the Second World War and their restoration was waiting for its hour during a long time. Until recently the restoration work has been represented by the objects of Great Styles. Neo-Gothic as an eclectic style, was perceived as an insignificant artistic phenomenon for a long time,and therefore was not interesting for experts. Only recently it has occupied a worthy place in the matter of cultural object revival and preservation.
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