International Legal Regulation of Russian-Iranian Cooperation in Energetics and Caspian Sea Delimitation

Author Name(s): Gulnara R. Shaihutdinova, Mohammadreza Malmir, Elmira N. Malmir
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The article is devoted to the history of contractual relations’ development between Russia and Iran, dated back to XVI century. Particular meaning is given to the period stipulated by concluding of delimitation contracts between Russia and Iran concerning Caspian Sea, beginning on XIX century. It is important to note the capitulation contracts, marking Russian- Iranian relations in the period of reigned Russia and USSR. Currently, cooperation of Iran and Russia is appeared on different aspects with taking into consideration geopolitical situation, influenced on bilateral relations: labor power, natural resources, oil, gas, peaceful uses of atomic energy, inexhaustible    energy sources, military and economic resources, export and import of goods. Intergovernmental agreements in the sphere of energetics are of key importance. 2017 year has become fruitful for contractual Russian-Iranian relations. Nowadays more than 300 contracts have been concluded known by authors of article from official resources. The list is not exhausted with this. For example, the agreement on cooperation in the sphere of peaceful uses of atomic energy stipulating the realization of nuclear technologies in medicine, agriculture and industry, fundamental researches in the sphere of nuclear physics was concluded in 1992.


The political situations and conflicts, happened for last 3 years in the world, directly concerning Russia, may say, have changed external conjuncture,  and have oriented foreign- policy activities of Russia on active cooperation with eastern countries. Particularly, Moscow has paid attention on the Middle East represented by Islamic Republic of Iran. Peaceful uses of atomic energy, inexhaustible energy resources  is non-exhaustive list on spheres for economic-legal cooperation with Iran, which is one of the top priority partner in this sphere.

In this regard the consideration of contractual relations between Russia and Iran in the sphere of energetics seem to be actual from scientific point of view. Issues on the delimitation of Caspian Sea which have been problematic from the times of reigned Russia and remain problematic nowadays are to be important and topical.

Issues on the delimitation of Caspian Sea have been considered by O.V. Glikman in the article «International agreements of Russia, regulating cooperation in oil and gas section», Guseinov V.A. in the monography «Caspian oi. Economics and geopolitics», Gabieva Z. in the article «Legal status of the Caspian». However, contractual economic relation of Russia and Iran in the sphere of energetics is poorly studied and represents main interest.

With reference to the above mentioned authors have determined the aim – to study contractual relations between Russia and Iran in the sphere of Caspian Sea. The aim has specified the following objects:

  1. To consider the contractual relations concerning the delimitation of Caspian Sea from historical angle;
  2. To ascertain the dynamics for solution of Caspian Sea delimitation problems;
  3. To determine the actual list of contracts between Russia and Iran in the sphere of energetics.


2017 year productive for conducted negotiations and concluded agreements let to build big plans for nearest future, to conduct constructive dialogue with Iran. The official reports of               IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) confirm that Iran applies the undertakings entirely. This   increases the confidence in wellbeing of cooperation with Iran. «Russia is guided by these reasons and will encourage the deal, which was concluded to the previous administration of United States», – concluded President Vladimir V. Putin during his speech on international forum «Russian energy week» [13].


[1] Atomic Energy Organization of Iran. Iran – Russia nuclear cooperation seminar held in Moscow. URL:

[2] NII Monopoliya vneshney torgovli. Torgoviyu otnosheniya SSSR so stranami Blizhnego Vostoka. – Moskva: Izd-vo v/o «Mezdunarodniya kniga», 1938 [in Russian] [3] Zakoni Rossii. Dogovor mezdu Rossiyskoi Socialisticheskoi Federativnoi Sovetskoi Respublikoi I Persieye (podpisan v g. Moskve, 26.02.1921). – URL: [in Russian] [4] Turkmachaiskiy mirnyi dogovor mezdu Rossiye I Iranom. 10.02.1828. – URL: [in Russian] [5] Guseinov V.A. Kaspiyskaya neft. Ekonomika I geopolitika. – Moskva: OLMA – PRESS, 2002

[6] Gabieva Zarina. Pravovoi status Kaspya. – URL: [in Russian] [7] Zakoni Rossii. Dogovor o torgovle I moreplavanii mezdu SSSR I Iranom  (podpisan v g. Tegerane 25.03.1940). – URL: [in Russian] [8] Zakon SSSR ot 24.11.1982 «О  gosudarstvennoi granize SSSR».  – URL: [in Russian] [9] Hanna Zimnitskaya, James von Geldern. Is the Caspian Sea a sea; and why does it matter?  – Journal of Eurasian Studies 2 (2011) 1-14

[10] Glikman O.V. Mezdunarodniyi dogovori Rossii, reguliruyushii sotrudnichestvo v neftegazovom sektore. – Jurnal rossiyskogo gazovogo obshestva «Gazoviy biznes». – URL: [in Russian] [11] Davor Boban, Karlo Loncar. Geopolitical consequences of resolving the legal status of the Caspian Sea: security and energy aspects. Hrvatski geografski glasnik, Vol.78 No.2 Siječanj 2017.

[12] Anthony H. Cordesman, Bryan Gold, Chloe Coughlin – Schulte. Iran- sanctions, energy, arsm control, and regime change. Center for strategic and international studies, January 2014.

[13] Rossiyskaya energetichiskaya nedelya. – URL: [in Russian] [14]  Bank dannih. Ekonomichiskii svazi Irana I Rossii.  «Gazprom neft» proyavlyaet interes k rabote na mestorojdenii Band-e Karheh v Irane. – URL:–171-Газпром-нефть–187–проявляет-интерес-к-работе-на-месторождении-Банд-е-Кархех-в-Иране/1859/view/ [in Russian] [15] Nationalniy otraslevoi jurnal. Neftegazovaya vertical. Iran podderjit prodleniye sdelki OPEK + posle marta 2017 goda. – URL: [in Russian] [16] Nationalniy otraslevoi jurnal. Neftegazovaya vertical.  Rosgeologiya vedet peregovori s neftanikami po sovmestnoi realizazii proektov v Irane. – URL: [in Russian] [17] PressTv. Iran, Turkey, Russia sign oil, gas investment deal. URL:

[18] News agency Mehr. Signing of Road map of cooperation between Iran and Russia in the sphere of energetics. –  URL:, translation from Persian.

[19] Sait Komiteta Gosudarstvennoi Dumi po energetike. Komitet Gosudarstvennoi Dumi po energetike I Komissiya po energetike Madjlisa Islamskogo Soveta Irana dogovorilis o sozdanii sovmestnoi rabochei gruppi po voprosam energetiki. – URL: [in Russian] [20] News agency of Islamic Republic IRNA. Iran and Russia have agreed on initiation of joint parliamentary group in the sphere of energetics.  URL:, translation from Persian, free access

[21] Elektronnya gazeta «Vedomosti». «Rosneft» ozenila budushii investizii v Iran.   – URL: [in Russian] [22] Informazionni sait  Pars Today. Posol Rossii v Tegerane: «RF namerena razvivat economic svazi s Iranom». – URL: [in Russian] [23] Telekanal Mir24. Vizit Putina I Alieva v Iran: itogi. – URL:



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