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The article highlights the actual theoretical and methodological issues of communicative grammar from the point of view of the “new” communicative trend in teaching Russian as a foreign language considering the anthropocentric worldview of the contemporary humanitarian discourse. The relevance of the stated problem is caused by the absence in the modern methodological and anthropological “picture of the world” of clear criteria for description for the separation of the “traditional” and “non-traditional” approach to communicative grammar. The authors raise the question of the continuity of methodological traditions, tracing the development of the communicative approach, revealing its theoretical prerequisites and “involvement” in the modern anthropological paradigm of humanitarian discourse.Relative-comparative methods, the use of discourse analysis techniques allowed the authors of the article to approach the anthropocentric (cultural) understanding of the reasons for shifting the interests of grammarians from the device of the language system (traditional grammar) to its functioning (“non-traditional grammar” or grammar of the “speaker”). Despite the significant differences between the three main “non-traditional” approaches (functional-communicative grammar, the theory of functional grammar and the applied theory of functional-communicative syntax), their basis is the orientation toward text and immersion in the discursive space of the language being studied. The main result of this research is the understanding of the phenomenal essence of communicative grammar as a linguistic and cultural fact, and the practical way out is the use of the methodological principles of communicative grammar as a nucleus in the modern linguodidactic model in the study of the Russian language as a foreign language.
The phenomenality of grammar as a phenomenon consists in the multidimensionality of contact points with the anthropological picture of the world. A talking, thinking, feeling person is the main character in the world and in the language. His comprehension of the world, his attitude to other people and the phenomena of the world are expressed in the language and speech media he chooses. At the end of the 20th century, the idea of the anthropocentric orientation of linguistics is universally accepted. There is an identification of the speaker’s thought organization and the process of optimal information transfer at the level of modern humanitarian discourse. The accumulated knowledge, materials, experiments, methods, means and techniques should be rethought at a certain point, expanding the usual boundaries of common understanding of the grammar essence. A criterion for the necessity of this process and a unifying beginning is the figure of a person, speaking person.
So, in the framework of communicative grammar, the grammatical structure of a specific language is considered in accordance with the spirit of the anthropocentrism ideas as a tool for communication and thinking, of cognition of the surrounding reality, receives the status of a mentally conditioned category.
The modern methods of teaching the RFL borrowed from communicative grammar not only the basic approach to language, but the individual principles of working with modeling the units of discursive practice of the speaking person as well. The speech grammar is based on the achievements of the traditional formal-descriptive grammar (language grammar), although it is opposed to it in many respects. The learning goal is immersion in the discursive language space and its development through the syntactic models (from word-combinations to text). Mastering grammar is considered as a necessary condition for immersion in the space of another’s language and acquaintance with the basic features of the language picture of the world of the foreign language speakers.
The research is performed according to the Russian Government Program of Competitive Growth of Kazan Federal University.
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