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The effect of blue and red light on the growth and activity of antioxidant enzymes in winter wheat sprouts, in case of infection with Fusarium oxysporum was investigated. It was shown, that blue and red spectral regions could regulate the activity of antioxidant enzymes in nine-day wheat germs, both in normal state and when infested with Fusarium oxysporum. Red spectral region increased the activity of peroxidase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, under the influence of Fusarium oxysporum, while only the peroxidase activity was increased in blue light. When colonizing the roots of sprouts by Fusarium oxysporum, lipid peroxygenation decreases in red and blue light, which may indicate their resistance to the studied phytopathogen. It was established, that the red spectral region stimulated the growth parameters of the aboveground and underground parts of wheat sprouts. In case of germs infestation with the pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum, significant production of dry weight by the underground partsof the plants was observed.
Among the priority areas of modern crop farming are the researches in the field of plant resistance to pathogenic organisms. The knowledge of the mechanisms, using which plants develop systemic stability, is of great practical importance, since annually the various pathogens of diseases of cultivated plants deteriorate the commercial qualities of food products, and reduce the total yield by 40% [Hammond-Kosack et al., 2000]. Fusarium oxysporum plays the role of a quiet killer – as far as pathogenic histamines of this fungus can keep in the soil and on plant residues for 30 years, and remain virulent and capable of infecting plants. Conidia of this fungus are transferred by water, insects, through instruments and by air. Mass development of fungi is observed in the conditions of high humidity and temperature.
Roots browning and rot, thinning of the root part of the stem are observed in the affected plants. Under the influence of F. oxysporum, plants faded and, as a rule, then they died. Fusarium affects all types of agricultural plants [Michielse, 2009]. In cereals, in addition to rotting the roots, stems often die off, or ears without grain are observed. Plants, affected by rot, are easily pulled from the soil. The disease is found everywhere [Leslie, 2006].
At present, agricultural ecosystems consist of genetically impoverished populations of agricultural plants. They grow at high density, at large spatial scales, herewith the regional species composition of agricultural crops vary only slightly from year to year [Read, 2016].
Despite the significant progress, achieved over the past two decades in the manipulation of genes, the fully resistance of plants to biotic stresses has not been created up to now. Light is one of the most important external factors, having a direct impact on plant development [Casal, 2013; Xinyu Zhang et al., 2017]. The specific effect of light of different spectrum on the growth, development and formation of resistance to pathogenic organisms was studied and proved [Cheng et al., 2004]. It was shown, that the invasiveness and virulence of many pathogens depended on the spectral quality of light [Ricci, 2015; Schuerger, 1997]. At present, the mechanisms of the effect of different spectral composition of light on the infected plant organism are still underexplored. In this regard, the following goal of the research was set: to study the activity of antioxidant protective system of wheat germs, grown in the conditions of red and blue light, under the influence of the pathogenic fungus F. oxysporum.
As a result of the conducted studies, it was found, that the spectral composition of light, under the influence of phytopathogenic fungus on wheat germs, could be an important management tool for integrated programs of plant growth and development, and also could regulate the activity of the main antioxidant enzymes.
The work is performed according to the Russian Government Program of Competitive Growth of Kazan Federal University.
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