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This study is aimed at identifying contemporary problems of socio-economic and demographic development of the rural population in one of the regions of Russia. The high economic potential of rural areas of the Republic of Tatarstan is revealed in the work. The rural population in Tatarstan is decreasing quite rapidly, and the potential of rural areas is not always properly used. In this study, the example of the Republic of Tatarstan shows how the socio-economic development of a region depends on demographic parameters. All this makes relevant the research aimed at the study and analysis of the reasons for the reduction of the rural population. The study of demographic processes in Tatarstan, using geographic and demographic features at the grass-root territorial level, made it possible to identify stable zones which composition included several regions of administrative regions differing in the course of their demographic processes, what would allow this experience to be used in other territories. The analysis and elaboration at the level of an individual constituent entity made it possible to identify regional features and develop practical recommendations for the transition to regional sustainable development. For a better disclosure of the topic under study, the comparative data of urban and rural populations are used in many ways.
Accordingly, concrete results were obtained and practical recommendations were proposed as a result of the study, which should be implemented in the very near future. Modern trends in the development of the rural population were specified in the work.
Analysis of the population, its size, composition and location, social organization and economic activity is an important part of any socio-economic and territorial study. Therefore, interest in human population issues goes back to ancient times. The population is an indispensable element of the characteristic of the world in general, and of the countries, and of the regions, and of individual settlements. Population problems are currently being discussed at meetings of various representative commissions and specialists from other regions of Russia and CIS countries and the world, as evidenced by a huge number of dissertations performed by Tatarstan scientists. There are constantly emerging new situations with the closest possible connection to and directly affecting the population, including the rural population. These situations include issues related to the resettlement of the population, the formation of a
modern labor market, the restriction of excessive growth in large cities, modernization of the village infrastructure, changesin the social structure of rural areas, improvement of quality and living standards of the rural population, the reduction of crime, the development and modernization of entrepreneurship, etc. More than 7.4 billion people live on the globe,and almost half of them live in rural areas. Russia is among the highly urbanized countries of the world. In Russia, the rural population is only 24% of the total population of the country. Today, we are talking about 35mln.
At the same time, in a number of regions of the Russian Federation, significant positive experience has been accumulated in the complex development of rural areas, the development of rural social and engineering infrastructure, housing construction, financial support for the economic activity of the rural population, and the expansion of its employment. For example, such regions include: the Belgorod Region, the Leningrad Region, the Republic of Mordovia, the Chuvash Republic, and other regions. Among such regions is the Republic of Tatarstan.
This experience is worthy of attention and generalization for the purpose of use in other constituent entities of the Russian Federation, as well as at the federal level when developing programs for the development of the Russian rural areas and rural community.
Rural areas and rural community play an important role in the socio-economic life of modern society. The Russian rural community goes through changes related to the deepening of social differentiation, as well as social stratification of rural society. Even recently being relatively homogeneous in terms of its basic property criteria, rural communityis structured into new social strata and groups as a result of different forms of ownership .
The problems of the present social unhappiness of the native rural areas are such that they jeopardize the continued existence of Russian statehood and make it impossible to ensure the sustainable development of Russian society.
The study of demographic processes in Tatarstan with the use of geo demographic features at the grass-roots territorial level made it possible to identify stable zones, the composition of which included several administrative regions differing by the course of demographic processes. The results obtained dictate the need to pursue a separate demographic policy at the regional level in Tatarstan. These data serve as ready material for population forecasting.
According to the study materials, the stably negative zones will survive. Processing of the results of the study made it possible to identify the formation of two stably negative zones in areas with a predominance of Russians. Feature of the allocated zones: low fertility and high mortality. They are regions near the Volga River and the city of Kazan, and territorially it is in these zones: Verkhne-Uslonsk, Kamsko-Ustinsk, Tetyushsk, Zelenodolsk districts. The second zone was formed in the Northeast of the republic and includes Zainsk, Elabuga, and Nizhnekamsk districts.
The growth of cities within these zones, such as Kazan, Zelenodolsk, Yelabuga, attracting internal migrants from rural areas had a decisive impact on the change in the sex and age structure in the rural population of these areas.
The study was carried out with the financial support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research and the Republic of Tatarstan, the project “Forecast Assessment of the Social and Economic Development of Rural Settlements in the Republic of Tatarstan” No. 17-12-16005.
The work is carried out according to the Russian Government Program of Competitive Growth of Kazan Federal University.
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