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The article is devoted to understanding the boundaries and possibilities of applying situational methodology in the scientific studies of various orientations. The methodological principles used in this study are based on a dialectical methodology of the formation and development of a new, existentialist situation concept, presented in the studies and contextual analysis of K. Jaspers. It is argued the insufficiency of reducing the situation to a coincidence of circumstances, to instability and fluidity outside the connection with the past and the future, outside the situation subject, which centers it in a single whole. It is identified the boundaries of applying the situational methodology, due to the fact of the heterogeneity of the situations themselves, the subjectivism of interpreting their significance for predicting the future state of the system, the inadequacy of the formal and logical tools for analyzing situations and the possibility of using other types of logics. It is concluded that it is necessary to extrapolate the available range of possibilities for the future, taking into account the understanding of the goals of the situation subject, personal contribution to the transformation of circumstances that require an understanding of the meanings of human activity that go beyond the pragmatic solution of the immediate tasks dictated by the situation. It is stated the suitability of this approach, first of all, for the areas related to the social and humanitarian knowledge and social practice.
The situational approach to cognition has become a fairly common technique in the modern social and humanitarian practices. At the same time, it often does not go beyond the rhetoric, is located on the territory of everyday understanding of the term “situation”, as a result it does not become the subject of study of the methodologists and is accordingly applied or postulated uncritically, beyond understanding its capabilities and boundaries.
Practical results achieved on the path of intuitive application of the situational approach in education, management, psychology, economics, etc., do not give grounds to believe that this approach is really consciously applied .
All this raises the question of the need to analyze the opportunities, which are situational according to their research methodology, as well as the boundaries in which it can exist and work.
Analysis of modern sources and contextual reading of K. Jaspers’ work “Spiritual Time Situation” enables us to draw preliminary conclusions about the possibility of using situational methodology in the field of social research and social practice. The article takes initial approaches to creating the situational methodology, which requires further development.
The work is performed according to the Russian Government Program of Competitive Growth of Kazan Federal University.
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