The survey of the group-training time management effectiveness on the students’ procrastination

Author Name(s): Hussein Ali Ja’afari, Zhaleh Refahi*, Sultan Ali Kazemi
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The present study aims at the investigation of the group-training time management effectiveness on the city of larestan’s high school boy students’ procrastination from. The present study is an underlying research in terms of the objectives it is in pursue of and it is a descriptive research of the correlation type in terms of data collection methods it uses. The study methodology used here is a pretest-posttest with a one-month follow-up and a control group. The study participants were 455 first grade high school boy students from the city of Lar all of whom were selected based on a randomized clustering method. Data collection tool was the procrastination questionnaire. 30 individuals with the highest procrastination score were selected as the study sample volume based on a simple randomized method. The statistical data were analyzed by means of the descriptive statistics, covariance analysis and reassessment. The results indicated that 65% of the students’ procrastination score differences pertained to the group-training time management procedures. Also, the pretest-posttest and pretest-follow-up scores differed significantly among the experimental and control groups regarding the procrastination rate. The results of the study indicated that training for time management significantly affects the students’ procrastination.


time management, procrastination


In many of the various academic levels we are bearing witness to procrastination or laziness among the students and such an issue is an important concern challenging the parents and the educational authorities. Some of the students do not take their lessons serious or are lazy and slothful in finishing their assignments and this is a cause contributing to the academic underachievement in them. The term procrastination has been derived from a prefix “pro” meaning after, later and in support of and a root “crastinus”, meaning tomorrow and literally it means until tomorrow [1]. In fact, procrastination is a way of scaping from something to live to the maximum extent possible in the present time [2]. Time is the most valuable source at the hand of the human beings, since all of the other sources take their value if there is time and it is due to the same worth and importance that paying attention to the time has been repeated in many of the cultures and languages [3]. Time management can be considered as an instrument by means of which one can get access to a better life characterized by valuable accomplishments and deep feelings, satisfaction and perfection [4]. The importance and the priority of the time has long been focused on by the scientists and the thinkers to the extent that some have attempted foretelling in order to gain a greater recognition and to gain a sort of control over the time, some have also broken the time limits and boundaries and some of the others have also predicted many years later from now [5-7]. Exercising time management makes the individual more aware of the available time and perform duties in a more organized and effective manner to obtain the maximum productivity possible in this way [8]. Ziegler [9] in his study comes to the conclusion that for barring the factors resulting in wastage of time and improving the productivity the activities should be prioritized and the results of every project at hand should be considered and the least possible time should be spent on less important activities. In addition, the evidences indicate that the individuals’ environment and place of living are effective on their procrastination. For instance, the individuals who live in buildings with no greeneries show a greater deal of procrastination in coping with fundamental issues. The study has demonstrated that the green areas increase the individuals’ efficiency through reducing their mental tiredness and finally result in the decrease in procrastination [10]. Karami [11] in a study called the “procrastination prevalence rate in the university students and the relation it has with the anxiety and depression among 400 Islamic Azad university students, Rudehen Branch,” came to the conclusion that more than half of the testees (61%) had a high level (24%) and very high level of procrastination (37%) and it was also found out that though procrastination is significantly associated with anxiety and depression but it solely accounts for 3.5% and 3% of the anxiety and depression variations, respectively.

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