The survey of the group-training time management effectiveness on the students’ procrastination

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The present study aims at the investigation of the group-training time management effectiveness on the city of larestan’s high school boy students’ procrastination from. The present study is an underlying research in terms of the objectives it is in pursue of and it is a descriptive research of the correlation type in terms of data collection methods it uses. The study methodology used here is a pretest-posttest with a one-month follow-up and a control group. The study participants were 455 first grade high school boy students from the city of Lar all of whom were selected based on a randomized clustering method. Data collection tool was the procrastination questionnaire. 30 individuals with the highest procrastination score were selected as the study sample volume based on a simple randomized method. The statistical data were analyzed by means of the descriptive statistics, covariance analysis and reassessment. The results indicated that 65% of the students’ procrastination score differences pertained to the group-training time management procedures. Also, the pretest-posttest and pretest-follow-up scores differed significantly among the experimental and control groups regarding the procrastination rate. The results of the study indicated that training for time management significantly affects the students’ procrastination.


In many of the various academic levels we are bearing witness to procrastination or laziness among the students and such an issue is an important concern challenging the parents and the educational authorities. Some of the students do not take their lessons serious or are lazy and slothful in finishing their assignments and this is a cause contributing to the academic underachievement in them. The term procrastination has been derived from a prefix “pro” meaning after, later and in support of and a root “crastinus”, meaning tomorrow and literally it means until tomorrow [1]. In fact, procrastination is a way of scaping from something to live to the maximum extent possible in the present time [2]. Time is the most valuable source at the hand of the human beings, since all of the other sources take their value if there is time and it is due to the same worth and importance that paying attention to the time has been repeated in many of the cultures and languages [3]. Time management can be considered as an instrument by means of which one can get access to a better life characterized by valuable accomplishments and deep feelings, satisfaction and perfection [4]. The importance and the priority of the time has long been focused on by the scientists and the thinkers to the extent that some have attempted foretelling in order to gain a greater recognition and to gain a sort of control over the time, some have also broken the time limits and boundaries and some of the others have also predicted many years later from now [5-7]. Exercising time management makes the individual more aware of the available time and perform duties in a more organized and effective manner to obtain the maximum productivity possible in this way [8]. Ziegler [9] in his study comes to the conclusion that for barring the factors resulting in wastage of time and improving the productivity the activities should be prioritized and the results of every project at hand should be considered and the least possible time should be spent on less important activities. In addition, the evidences indicate that the individuals’ environment and place of living are effective on their procrastination. For instance, the individuals who live in buildings with no greeneries show a greater deal of procrastination in coping with fundamental issues. The study has demonstrated that the green areas increase the individuals’ efficiency through reducing their mental tiredness and finally result in the decrease in procrastination [10]. Karami [11] in a study called the “procrastination prevalence rate in the university students and the relation it has with the anxiety and depression among 400 Islamic Azad university students, Rudehen Branch,” came to the conclusion that more than half of the testees (61%) had a high level (24%) and very high level of procrastination (37%) and it was also found out that though procrastination is significantly associated with anxiety and depression but it solely accounts for 3.5% and 3% of the anxiety and depression variations, respectively.

The discussion and the evaluation of procrastination and the theories of relevance to the present study suggest that the procrastination exposes the individuals to mental, social and economical losses in both the individual and social levels. Based on the theories provided regarding procrastination which can be classified in areas such as attention, behavioral, self-deceit, anxiety, disobedience, expectations mitigation, and procrastination talent, procrastination is of various types and its harmful outcomes depend on the situation in such a way that based on the patterns focused on in the current research project procrastination stems from various factors, specially impulsiveness. According to the fact that procrastination process is seen abundantly among the students and it is a factor that results in behavioral and academic underachievement and delayed achievement in the long run and also because teaching the life skills has lost its intensity in the high schools, it seems that learning and teaching the time management concept in a direct way can be effective on the reduction in procrastination and because such a phenomenon is seen in the students due to reasons such as lack of motivation and other reasons of the like the current research becomes necessary because of the scientific, social and academic reasons and it is necessary to take various kinds of trainings and teachings effectiveness on the procrastination reduction into consideration. Therefore, it can be said that reducing procrastination in the students is in a direct relationship with the time management skills training and according to the problems and the challenges that procrastination brings for the human beings, particularly the students, thus the present study is seeking to figure out whether being trained for the time management skills can be effective on the students’ procrastination?


Based on the results obtained from the data analysis it was made evident that the group training for time management has a significant influence on the students’ procrastination. In the investigation of the studies, no study evaluating the group training for time management suggesting results indicative of its effectiveness was found corresponding to the results obtained by the present study. Thus, to elaborate more on the issue we prefer to point to the studies which are deemed to be closer to the theme of the present study [11, 19-23] in which it has been found out that academic self-regulation and religious beliefs are associated with the attenuation of self-disabling and that the academic self-efficacy is associated with the reduction in anxiety and depression. In elaborating on the results just mentioned it can be said that many of the human beings become entangled by procrastination and job postponement in various time cross-sections of their lives and this has been the cause of a great many of harms and losses in itself and it is clearly visible among the students in various academic levels that procrastination and laziness in studying and doing homework, as well, has brought a situation for their academic underachievement. It has been frequently seen that the students waste their time and get busy with useless things or they seem not to have a proper plan for studying their lessons and they most often choose to study their lessons the night before the exam. It can be stated that time management is a skill everyone requires in his or her life. Time management skill makes the individual carry out his or her jobs or activities in an organized manner and brings about the grounding for timely accomplishment of the assignments and reduces the procrastination and laziness in performance, so teaching and training such skills is necessary for the human beings. Also, it is recommended that the students should be trained for such skills since they teach the students that the time is worthy and the students can learn how to make use of time in their academic achievement and try to avoid wasting their time via accurate and careful planning during their course of schooling to finally bear witness to their progress and take advantage of their talents in various stages of life; moreover, time management enhances the individual’s organization, order and success and the individual will feel more satisfaction with his or her life.

There are limitations in every research upon which the later studies preparations are laid. The present study also faced constraints and limitations, including that the study was performed on the high school students and generalizing the results to the lower levels of education should be done with due care and that the study was undertaken on the boy students, so its generalization to the girls should be performed with due care. Also, the students were only available during certain hours and they could not be controlled out of school time. According to the challenges and the limitations of the study it is therefore suggested that later studies should also incorporate the investigation of the other skills and other interventions including the study methods, decision-making skills and so forth.

Also, according to the results obtained in the present study some applied suggestions can be made to the parents, teachers, instructors, headmasters, officials and education ministry planners and the other interested groups and individuals. Based on the importance of procrastination and the effect it has on the students’ academic performance one can hold training and teaching workshops in which the students can learn life skills in order for their potencies to be enhanced and also to take measures in decreasing the academic procrastination.


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