Investigation of Thermal Behavior and Comparison of the weight of Constituent materials in the Convectional Outer Shell of Buildings in Iran

Author Name(s): Ashkan KhodaBandehLou*, Mohammad kheradranjbar
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Nowadays, with regards to the rapid growth of technology and the production of new materials in the construction industry and move towards industrialization in this sector, paying attention to the active and inactive methods in terms of optimizing in the construction sector, has been of particular importance and imprecision and mismanagement in the selection of consuming materials are of the main problems existing in the building industry [1]. The influence of thermal resistance of surrounding walls is one of the most important parameters of the wall insulation and barriers to waste of energy in buildings. The surrounding walls as the exterior shell of the building play an essential role to reduce cooling and heating loads between the internal and external areas, hence, the use of such material with less weight for thermal insulation of buildings that is energy saving and capable to prevent waste of energy, is of particular importance. Therefore, in the selection of materials for construction, it is necessary that the thermal properties of them and their constituent elements be assessed, especially in the outer shell and surrounding walls. In the present paper, the thermal behavior and the weight of these materials as constituent materials of the outer shell of building are investigated according to existing rules and regulations, in addition, their behavior with each other is taken into consideration.


Outer Shell, Building, thermal resistance,Thermal conductivity coefficient, weight of materials


In the recent years, urban construction in the country has stepped up towards apartment building and development of cities in the height and not on area. So that in most metropolises, less trace of single story buildings or villas has been remained. The experience of industrial countries obviously reveals the necessity of developing regulations complying with the conditions in each country. In this regard, the first edition of section 19 of national building regulations entitled saving in energy consumption developed, which the majority of it was about design criteria for thermal insulation of building exterior shell. Energy consumption in the buildings of the country as a non-productive sector has allocated the largest contribution among all sectors of consumption. According to the country’s energy balance, more than 40 % of energy consumption is directly used to meet the needs of this section, annually. Perhaps because of the inexpensive price of energy, industry owners and private consumers have not respected energy saving and rational use of it. Whilst, much of the performed researches show that more than half of this amount of energy consumption is wasted due to various reasons. In fact, if the building condition is handled, by the implementation of energy optimizing solutions, enhancing efficiency, and modifying the exploitation pattern, the intended comfort in buildings could be provided with using less than half of this amount of consuming energy. Therefore, it is required to pay attention in order to reduce fuel consumption, save energy and to optimize buildings especially in the case of using appropriate and new materials in design and construction of buildings.

Keywords: thermal resistance, thermal conductivity coefficient, weight, exterior shell, thermal insulation.


Considering the low cost of energy in the country and non-compliance with laws and regulations and the growth of consumption and intensity of energy in this sector, which is much more than global standards, the necessity of reducing energy in the buildings requires planning and programing to control the energy consumption. One of these methods is the use of materials with appropriate thermal behavior and lightweight. In the present paper, the steps of investigating thermal resistance of conventional materials used in the outer shell of buildings have been studied according to section 19 of national building regulations, and the comparison of their weight according to available standards. Based of the obtained results, it was observed that the thermal behavior of the walls made from Knauf are more suitable insulation as compared with the other materials and could be an appropriate replacement rather than other materials, especially traditional ones, moreover, the use of these materials could be effective in the weight reduction of buildings. In addition, compressive brick has the less thermal insulation and greater weight than other studied materials. Therefore, the use of Knauf materials is recommended to prevent wasting energy in the building of surrounding walls.

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