Developing appropriate strategies for boundary cities’ sustainable development(The case: Boundary city Bane)

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Development’s new patterns are based on local development orbit and benefiting from spatial- location varieties. So, nowadays, identification of capacities and abilities in line with access to this important affaire is placed at the center of development planner in different levels of geographical spaces. A brief look at country’s different areas especially urban sectors indicates this fact that many of development potential abilities and capabilities are actual and hidden with respect to spatial and structural varieties in the land area.One of the existing potential features in this field at the country’s spatial areas is revealing capacities of border areas development of provinces. If we consider borders and border locations as a positive factor and phenomenon in development, surely we will require attitude’s changes in approaches toward border areas’ role. Now we aim in this process research to response to this fundamental question that on which basis the development strategies in boundary city Bane are based and what are the considerable components? So, some strategies was offered and suggested respecting local realities as the most influential and development strategy among 158 by using determining items and indexes of urban sustainable development in the form of Likert spectrum and randomly through applying questionnaire and in the strategic planning framework and by means of swot technique in the framework of overview strategy framework.


Cities’ increasing expansion and the increase in their population have created many changes in their spatial and also social and economicstructures which these changes sometimes have been accompanied by inappropriate and negative consequences. In response to issues and crises due to such changes, some new concepts and approaches for future development were discussed which we can refer to environmental justice, smart development, etc. (Bartone et al -2003: 18). Posing sustainable development as the third millennium slogan will be due to the cities’ effects on the scope of biosphere and different dimensions of human life so that the discussion regarding sustainability and sustainable development through neglecting cities and urbanism will be meaningless. (HosseinZadehdalir et al – 2007:2).

Sustainable development which is nowadays the main subject, the topic of development circles and planning is the result of different development ideas itself. Similarly, there also are some various understandings about this concept such as the development concept.The common point of all of these ideas is ideas, sustainability and reaching to a process of development that can be stable and durable.It is a development which provides next generations’ necessities without damage to next generations’ abilities.  (Jome Poor, 2006 , 62). The concept of sustainable development in two recent decades has been the central point of many development paradigms. Sustainable development idea refers to this affair that there are various paths that can be replaced with current development patterns which led to massive environmental resources” destruction and social increasing inequalities. (Hall – 2006:156).

Among this, boundary cities are ones of the cities which both global and local forces influence on their sustainability respecting their special situation and function. Because In the one hand, these cities such as many of other cities which exist in this earthy sphere are under influence of natural conditions, residents’ social relationship, relationship with settlement around each otherand also they also have role and function in their national economic and political systems and on the other hand, they are under influence of economic, political, social and transnational and even global processes. Thus sustainability issue in such cities is far more important and it is more challenging rather than many other cities. It is while in spite of the importance of this issue, borders and boundary situations’ effect on cities’ sustainability has not yet been explained and although according to result which was taken place in the recent decades, this result was obtained that border areas can have a fundamental role in advancement and progress of economic developmentin border areas, promoting life standards, reducing and eliminating poverty and giving speed to more cooperation between countries and settlements around them. (Chandoevwit et al -2004: 145)

In the framework of above statements, the settlement adjacent borders including cities may deteriorate or flourish and it depends on border line was caused disturbance for natural areas or not and some new roles were offered them regarding path the borders. Totally, cities’ flourishing or deterioration and in the other words, cities sustainability or non-sustainability depend on this fact that border line create some different roles for them or vice versa, it damage their natural areas. (Perskat -2006:161).

Bane boundary city has been always influenced by this city’s boundary situation as one of the country’s boundary cities and cities development especially sustainable development has always been a function of boundary situation ( because of very much ups and downs in relations and transactions between Iran and Iraq). This is while some limited researches have been conducted respecting these cities’ sustainability and the effects which border and boundary situation can have on their sustainability and it can be said regarding Kurdistan province that no research has been taken place in this field. Thus it can be said that in spite of the remarkable effects that boundary situation have had remarkable developments and changes of this province’s cities, however respecting limited researches in this field ,  boundary situation’seffect on urban sustainability of the cities of Kurdistan province have yet been unknown, Thus and according to sum of above sayings , this research aims to response this fundamental question: what is the appropriate strategy for improving boundary cities’ sustainable condition?


Respecting research’s theoretical resources and conducted field studies, boundary situation has remarkable effect on boundary cities’ development in different fields and the research’s results also confirms this affair, so that in the most of the items which have been posed by content of positive effects of boundary situation on cities’ development, the obtained averages are more than average levels. Boundary situations have left positive remarkable effects from the opinion of respondents. Of course, we should not neglect the negative effects such as presence of some crimes such as indecent relations, divorce increase, etc., the intention increase to leave education among students, environment destruction and region’s natural environment because of boundary interactions and the expansion without city’s plan and destructing environment around the city which the respondents believe that these are the results of boundary situation.

In continuous of research and  along with research’s actions ,researcher adapted some appropriate actions for effectiveness as more as possible of boundary regions on economic, social and environmental development which are based on qualitative argument and suggested strategies of research in relation with boundary cities. After specification of key factors, some kinds of possible strategies were developd based on set of existing strengths, weakness, opportunities and threads divided by the regions under study in the swot analysis framework. Respecting specific conditions of boundary cities and also internal and external effective factors on these cities’ sustainable development, the developd strategies have been actually focused on special dimensions so that it was specified that boundary cities’ sustainable development strategies is a kind of review strategies according to the results of evaluation matrixes IFE and EFE and drawing the results of this evaluation in swot analysis quantitative diagram. These kinds of strategies are based on benefiting from external opportunities to decrease and eliminate internal weakness and converting them to strength points. Thus, respecting obtained results and regarding set of opportunities, threads, strength points and weakness points by which boundary cities are faced, it seems that appropriate strategy to improve this group’s sustainability is one kind of review strategies.


The theoretical subjects related to boundary situation and its effects on urban development commonly and urban sustainable development specifically showed that there are different approaches and theories in this fields which can be considered as basis theory .So more discussion and study regarding existing theories and approaches in the field of boundary situation’s role in boundary sustainability can help the more comprehensive  recognition and offering more various solutions for boundary cities’ development in addition to rich  the scientific literature of this subject.

-As this research’s result showed, the main positive effects of boundary situation on urban sustainability have been observed as economic effects. In this regard, research and search regarding the way of benefiting from boundary situation in line with the increase in social, environmental and framework indicators can help the richness of this subject. In addition, research regarding development policies and planning arisen from boundary situation and conditions in boundary cities can also be effective in potentials due to boundary situation.

-As it was specified in the hypothesis of this research according to strategic planning frameworks, the appropriate type of strategies to achieve sustainability in boundary cities is review strategies. These kinds of strategies are based on benefiting from external opportunities to decrease and eliminate internal weakness and converting them to strength points. In fact, obtained results in this field indicates the existence of different weakness in boundary cities in confront of many opportunities which boundary situation has taken them. O, it is suggested that the process of strategies’ being operational by using specified opportunities should be specified in separated researches and it should study in line with decreasing and eliminating existing weakness points in the cities under study of bane.



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