Plant Stand Density and Photosynthetic Activity of a Mid-season Potato Depending on Pre-plant Soil Treatment in the Middle CIS-Urals

Author Name(s): A.A. Skrуabin
Author Email: andrej.skryabin.2018@list.ru

Abstract

The article presents data on the yield of medium-ripe potato varieties depending on pre-planting soil treatment in different weather conditions. The research was carried out in a farm on sod-podzolic soil with low humus content, medium acid reaction of the medium, high phosphorus and potassium content. The aim of the research is to identify the methods of pre-planting soil treatment providing a yield of 30 t/ha. the experiment was used depending on the variant: plowing with a plow; milling with a vertical mill; disking. Predecessor winter rye for green manure. The planting rate is 50 thousand tubers/ha, row spacing is 70 cm. The aim of the research is the yield of 30 t / ha of mediumripe potatoes, depending on the pre-planting treatment, on average for 3 years, was achieved only in the control variant with plowing. It is noted that in different weather conditions growing seasons milling and disking differently reacted to the yield of potatoes: in dry and hot, optimal year was better milling, and in hot-disking. To achieve the goal, an average potato variety needs to form 152 thousand stems/ha with a leaf area of 25.6 thousand m2, the net productivity of photosynthesis is almost the same in the variants of the experiment 21-23 kg / 1000 m2×day / ha, the yield in the experiment was determined by the value of the photosynthetic potential, not its productivity.

Introduction

To obtain high, stable potato yields, a loose, well-aerated and easily heated soil with good ability to retain moisture in the root layer is required [1, 2, 3, 4]. In the non-chernozem zone of the Russian Federation, pre-planting cultivation of soil for potatoes includes harrowing, plowing of winter fallow, and in some cases cultivation or disking [5]. In Europe, pre-planting treatment is carried out by a milling cultivator which creates a small-lumpy soil structure, which significantly improves the conditions for plant growth and development, as well as combine harvesting [6]. However, not all scientists believe that milling is better. Researchers V.P. Kovalev, E.V. Botianovskii [7] believes that preplanting with a mill, especially on low humus soils and with a large amount of rainfall is accompanied by a significant compaction of the soil in comparison with plowing. Other scientists [8, 9] believe that the best conditions are provided by plowing light-textured soils in spring, and by plowing heavy-textured soils in autumn, and by heavy disc harrowing in spring. Thus, in different soil and climatic zones, different methods of preplanting tillage turn out to be the best. The introduction of the Western European technology of potato cultivation in the Middle Cis-Urals recommends replacing the spring crop with milling processing, which seeks confirmation empirically.

Conclusion

The objective of the research of 30 t/ha yield of Lugovskoy mid-season potatoes for an average of 3 years was achieved only in the control variant with plowing. It was noted that during vegetation periods different in weather conditions, milling and disking reacted differently to potato productivity: milling was better in a dry and hot year, while disking was better in a hot year. To achieve the objective, a mid-season potato variety needs to form 152 thousand stems/ha with a leaf area of 25.6 thousand m2, while the net productivity of photosynthesis is almost the same for the experimental variants 21-23 kg/1000 m2 × day/ha, the yield in the experiment was determined by photosynthetic potential rather than its productivity.

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