Author Email: Sirotkin67@rambler.ru
A qualitative assessment of the main types of zonal soils is necessary to assess the potential fertility of agricultural land. Soil bonitet analysis is used for cost-effective agriculture, determining the resource potential of agricultural land. Despite the many works devoted to soil evaluation, the definition of objective criteria and soil rating scales have not been fully developed. In this paper it is proposed to use hydrophysical indicators of the main zonal soils of European Russia for a qualitative assessment of the soil cover of agricultural lands. As an example of the use of hydrophysical parameters for the qualitative assessment of soils, the soil evaluated in the municipal regions of the Chuvash Republic. The work used data obtained directly during field studies in selected key areas. As a result of the research, a table of the hydrophysical properties of automorphic soils was compiled, a multivariate correlation between hydrophysical indicators of the main automorphic soils and the humus content was made, as well as soil-geoecological zoning of the study area (six main types of soil-geoecological regions of the Chuvash Republic were identified). A scale of anthropogenic load on the soil was also developed. The difference between ball-bonitet of the entire soil cover and agrogenic soil proposed to use as a criterion of anthropogenic load on the soil cover.
Soil quality and land valuation issues are closely related to their rational use. This axiom is recognized not only by most scientists, but also in legislation., two chapters are devoted to land valuation, land monitoring, and the state land cadastre in the Land Code of the Russian Federation. The main methods for the qualitative soil cover assessment (bonitation), use the principles formulated by such outstanding scientists as V.V. Dokuchaev and N. M. Sibirtsev. In soils assessment, quantitative indicators of soil properties and agroclimatic conditions are also used, which are closely correlated with crop yields, with a similar level of agricultural intensity. As the soils properties that correlate with long-term average productivity, humus, acidity, granulometric composition, absorption capacity, density, and thickness of the humus horizon are usually used.Therefore, in the methodology used by N.F.Tyumentsev , the soil properties basic initial data are volume weight (g/cm3), average humus content and mechanical fractions larger and smaller than 0.01 mm (in percent). In addition, he used data on reserves of gross nitrogen and phosphorus in soil horizons and information on other nutrients and soil properties. The agroclimatic indicators used for soil bonitet include, as a rule, the sum of active air temperatures (above 10 ° C), the moistening coefficient (according to Vysotsky-Ivanov) and the continental climate degree.A close correlation between the properties of soils and long-term productivity is observed only within certain ecological and genetic series of soils (zonal series, bogging series, etc.), and clearly not defined for all the soils of the region. Data on soil properties and crop yields are mathematically processed. The materials necessary to build soil evaluation scales can be processed in three ways:
For the first time it was proposed to use hydrophysical indicators (volume weight, particle density, porosity, specific surface area, water conductivity) for soil bonitet assessment. These parameters showed a very close correlation with humus content in the soil (the main bonitet feature in most modern soil assessment methods).Bonitation of automorphic soils of the Chuvash Republic by hydrophysical parameters was carried out. Bonitate scores were obtained for municipal areas for entire soil cover and for agrogenicsoils. As a criterion of anthropogenic load on the soil cover, as well as an indicator of a potential increase in soil fertility, the indicator Db was used (the difference between bonitet score for all soils and for agrogenic soils). The obtained bonitetindicators showed a significant relationship with the average long-term productivity of grain and leguminous crops in the municipal districts of the Chuvash Republic. As a result, soil-geoecological zoning of the Chuvash Republic territory was carried out, a set of maps and diagrams was created for all the main indicators
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