Asphalten-Resin-Paraffin Deposits (ARPD) and Its Impact on Oil and Gas Production

Author Name(s): Liya H. Fokeeva, Ramilya Kimetova
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This article discusses the implementation of a comprehensive program for the technical re-equipment of oil and gas production. The methods of combating the formation of ARPD in wells, intensive introduction of new equipment and technology, automation tools and automated production control systems into production were analyzed and reviewed. Based on the analysis, it was justified the use of acceptable methods to reduce the formation of ARPD. Due to the hydrocarbon content, we noted the effect of paraffin wax and asphaltene on a decrease in the corrosion rate. Despite this, the formation of paraffin wax and paraffin asphalt creates operational difficulties. Paraffins are organic molecules that dissolve in crude oil at higher temperatures in reservoir conditions, but are deposited in pumps, rods, pipelines and storage tanks, where operating temperatures are relatively low. Paraffin dissolving solvents are mixtures of organic solvents and surfactants. Paraffin inhibitors are chemicals that inhibit the growth of paraffin crystals. They are more effective when applied before the formation of paraffin crystals. The bonding element in paraffin is asphaltene. Paraffin dispersants act on asphaltenes (binders) and reduce their ability to bind to the surface. They are used as dispersion in water or are injected directly into the aqueous phase in a well, pipelines and reservoirs.


During the implementation of the program, the development of the oil and gas industry provides for the massive use of unified schemes for the collection, transport, preparation and storage of oil and gas. The technical re-equipment of the oil and gas production industry and its comprehensive automation made it possible to increase oil and gas production at an unprecedented pace [1] Heavy oil and bitumen are widely used as additives to crude oil as raw materials for the production of liquid fuels, as well as for the production of many other products, as well as ubiquitous plastics. From a chemical point of view, heavy oil and bitumen are extremely complex mixtures of hydrocarbon compounds with significant amounts of nitrogen-containing, oxygen-containing and sulfur-containing components, as well as trace amounts of metal-containing components. As a result, various production processes are used and developed for the extraction of heavy oil and bitumen. However, the technologies and services used to extract conventional crude oil are limited to the use of heavy oil and tar sands. Mathematical and engineering models developed for conventional oil production are generally not used for the production of heavy oil and bitumen. In addition, the high molecular weight part of heavy oil and bitumen consists of compounds (and not just asphaltic components) with high melting points and high pour points, which significantly reduces displacement compared to conventional oil under various conditions. The flow of traffic (heavy oil, possibly with sand, water, natural gas and/or solvents, in pipelines or horizontal wells) shall be predicted and guaranteed.


Wells equipped with ESP with a low dynamic level are not recommended to be protected by the method of periodic injection of the inhibitor into the annulus, since the reagent is quickly removed by the product stream [6] [7]. Given the low dynamic levels and low permeability, most of the wells working with reservoirs are recommended to be protected by an inhibitor using the technology of continuous reagent supply using deep dosing units equipped at the wellhead. The use of inhibitors to protect oilfield equipment from ARPD increases the overhaul period of wells by several times. Promising developments of ARPD inhibitors tend to create complex inhibitors using biodegradable surfactants, which makes it possible to increase not only the inter-treatment period by 5 or more times, but also create conditions for initial, downhole oil demulsification, which in turn will reduce the demulsifier consumption and improve quality of oil preparation for refining. It should be noted that the use of traditional methods of removing ARPD seemed inefficient due to their use in wells that do not meet the boundary parameters of their application. The action of acids, reagents and inhibitors of paraffin deposits are based on adsorption processes. When using chemical methods, they are based on the dosage of chemical compounds that reduce, and sometimes completely remove or prevent the ARPD formation. Concerning the action basis of electric heaters, it should be noted that heating will occur over the entire interval from the bottom to the wellhead, thereby there will be no temperature difference during production; transportation of ARPD petroleum products will not be delayed in oilfield equipment. While maintaining constant pressure in the well, the ARPD will not be deposited in oilfield equipment. An insufficient study of each of the above methods does not allow an exhaustive analysis and the most effective way to remove ARPD in oilfield equipment at wells and oil reservoirs. We can exclude just the experience of recent positive developments, namely, the biological removal of ARPD in wells

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