Analysis of Structure and Tectonics Based on Architecture and Design

Author Name(s): Rustem F. Mirhasanov, Albina R. Gatina, Elmira G. Akhmetshina, Aigerim S. Turgunbaeva
Author Email: albina-gatina@yandex.ru

Abstract

The article describes the problem of attention increase to descriptive analysis of world design products in educational and industrial, in creative and design practice. The study revealed the rules according to which the products of designer’s creative activity are formed. To address the issues of studying design and tectonics using the example of compositional analysis of design art heritage samples, which have become classic examples of international design, they provide the rationale for the terminological apparatus for its subsequent inclusion in the training system for future designers. The compositional design of architectural structures, which were the objects of imitation and inspiration for modern masters, demonstrates the visual plasticity of the wall framework movement, pronounced in the system of arcbutans and buttresses of Gothic temples, in courvatures and entasis of the ancient Greek architecture, and the tectonics of the entire structure in general. The article deals with the tectonics of furniture designs made of natural materials in the creative work of the Finnish designer Alvar Aalto. The master’s works show the combination of democracy with elegance, naturalness and rationalism. The maximum prevalence of form over content is fully observed in international architecture and design, but A. Aalto’s projects demonstrate the harmony between the traditions of folk architecture and the novelty of avantgarde techniques, the national traditions of architecture with flexibility and freedom of volumetric and spatial compositions.

Introduction

The analysis of “construction”, “tectonics” and “form and content” in the works of world classics is, in our opinion, an interesting and important area of study for theoretical and practical research in educational and creative activities within the field of design. Practitioners, the theorists of art construction (the term of the USSR), the design students are interested in understanding the existing connection and common interpretation of the terms “form” and “design” in various forms of art, the proximity of their “reading” in painting that is flat on the graphic surface, spatial and temporal perception of architecture and rapidly developing Russian art of design [1]. Both in the field of design and in the professional training of design students, there is the problem of discrepancies in deciphering the existing terminological apparatus in different types of fine art, the problem of assessment the significance of certain products of master designers who have contributed to the modern development of design, as well as rapidly developing trends of world art [2]. To solve these problems, which will only multiply with the advent of all new technical means, scientific discoveries, on the basis of which unprecedented trends and types of artistic design activity will be based, a properly organized analytical system of training students in design, as well as the model of educational and creative activities conducive to the education of a future designer creative personality are necessary [3]. The term “design” was briefly defined in 1969 at the Congress of the International Council of Design Organizations: “The term design refers to creative activity whose purpose is to determine the formal qualities of objects produced by industry.” These qualities of the form apply not only to the appearance, but mainly to the structural and functional relationships that turn the system in holistic unity from the point of view of both the manufacturer and the consumer”.

Conclusion

Thus, we can conclude that a master, a student, a pupil must consciously make the choice of form and content ratio during a creative or educational product development. After this or that correlation in the balance “form – content”, a new conditional language code is selected and a new artificial art form is created. In the end, there is the creation of a bright distinctive artistic image in the product design.

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