Solar Home Systems as the Basis for Bottom-Up Grids

Author Name(s): S. P. Jolhe, Dr. G. A. Dhomane, M. D. Karalkar.
Author Email: sp.jolhe@gov.in

Abstract

People living in India’s rural areas still have no access to electricity. According to the ministry of new and renewable energy (MNRE); this count is more than 400 million people (47.5%). While there are still more than 2.3 billion people in the world without reliable access to electricity. Due to remoteness of these places; it is not possible to give the supply from the central grid. Many area are hilly or forest or deep forest. It is not feasible as well as economical to lay the lines in such areas. The environment constraint of polluted air and water are on the verge of explosion. To avoid all the mentioned constrain the renewable energy sources are the most appropriate. These sources are environmental friendly as well as easy to erect. This paper present the DC operated system model for standalone application with and without battery. The analysis has been made for excess energy produced by solar PV system.

Introduction

Since year 2013, India became the world’s third largest producer of electricity, surpassing Japan and Russia, with 7.4% global share in electricity generation (BP Statistical Review, 2016). As on 31.10.2018; India had an installed capacity of 346.048 GW (Power sector at glance, Ministry of power). Among this total installed capacity, Renewable Power plants constituted 20.8% (Ministry of New and Renewable Energy– MNRE) and 13.1% contribution from hydro (Renewable); total contribution of renewable energy is 33.9% i.e. one third of the total electric power generation in India Non-Renewable Power Plants constituted the remaining 66.1%. Coal operated power plant are still contributing the highest electric power generation 195.993 GW (56.6%) and gas contribute 7.2% , oil contribution is 0.2% During the financial year 2017-18; the gross electricity generated by utilities is 1,303 TWh and 183 TWh by captive power plants. Auxiliary power consumption of the power generation plants is also included in gross electricity generation (Growth of Electricity Sector in India from 1947 -2015. CEA, India. 2018). Figure 1 shows the power generation scenario in India.

Conclusion

The simulation results show a high potential of Solar home System (SHS). The excess generation is normally dumped. However if many SHS are connected together to form a smart DC Nanogrid, it will be more advantages. As the system is shared by many people, there will be reduction in unused energy or this excess energy can be used by the community in productive use. The SHS will give new hope of ray to the people living in off grid areas. It will increase their living standard and enhance socio-economical development. However, there are many losses like dirt, reflection, shading or losses in the domestic wiring, which have not been taken in consideration but they influence the output and hence efficiency of the system. The load profile assumed plays a critical role. According to the season load variation will be more or less, in paper mill higher impact seasonal load is not considered. Still there is considerable amount of energy available which is not been used. This energy can be generated and sold to grid, which will enhance the economics of the owner.
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