Implementation of IMHT LEACH Protocol for WSN

Author Name(s): Tilak S. Rajput, Mousami S. Vanjale
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Wireless sensor network (WSN) consists of sensor nodes, which is divided into multiple levels for efficient communication. In WSN there are lots of protocols developed with different goals, but LEACH (Low Energy Clustering Hierarchy) is considered one of the most important among all other protocols. Lots of protocols are proposed as successors of LEACH but Multi-Hop Technique LEACH (MHT-LEACH) is considered effective one in terms of energy saving. MHT divides the whole network into two levels with reference to the threshold distance. But MHT suffers from area deployment problem when monitored area is considerably large. Improvement for this limitation of the MHT-LEACH, a new protocol is proposed named as Improved MultiHop Technique LEACH (IMHT-LEACH). In which the whole network is divided into multiple levels based on the distance between each other, which is proved to be more effective in terms of power saving. This paper illustrates practical implementation of IMHT-LEACH algorithm and parameters related to communication links like multiple hopping of data, response time and connection drop in half an hour in the implemented algorithm.


In WSN hundreds of sensor nodes are deployed to monitor the specific environment, it has a wide range of applications [1]. Each sensor node has sensors, onboard computing circuitry, communicating device and power source [2]. To minimize the energy consumption and maximize throughput of the network, lots of protocols are developed aiming data transfer from the sensor node to Base Station (BS) [3] [4]. There are two routing techniques first is Network operation based and second is network structure based routing. Further network structure based routing is divided into three categories such as data-centric routing, hierarchical routing and location-based routing [5]. There are various types of hierarchical routing protocols like PEGASIS, TEEN, LEACH, APTEEN, PEDAP. LEACH is one of those hierarchical routing protocols which increases network lifetime significantly. In LEACH whole network is divided into clusters whose function is monitored by Cluster Head (CH) [6]. CH collects information from the sensor nodes and sends aggregated data to Base Station (BS). 


In this paper, the IMHT-LEACH protocol with one master and two slave nodes has been successfully implemented. The master communicates directly with two nodes when both are in range. When one node is moved out of range the connection is set automatically through the node which is in the range. In addition to this, the graphical results are obtained which shows network characteristics such as delay time and connection drops remains same when the routing phase is complete and both nodes are operating in range. The response time graph get stabilizes for two different range of distance and it is separated by small region which shows there is time difference in response when data comes directly and through one hop. That means designed system performs well when the master and slave are in the specified range. In future GPS module or method of triangulation can also be used in this system so that the accurate position of the sensor node can be obtained and more energy can be saved by controlling transmission power

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