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This paper describes low pressure amalgam bactericidal lamps for disinfection purposes. The thermal regime of the lamp system – coating – disinfectant liquid is analyzed. Based on the solution of the heat balance equations, the temperature of the cold zone of the radiation source is estimated, which provides the basis for choosing either a mercury or amalgam lamp. Recommendations and basic formulas for calculating the thermal regime of the system are presented.
The creation of low-pressure mercury lamps for disinfection purposes over the past 20 years [1–2] has been further developed through the development of high-power lamps [3, 4]. This was implemented by introducing amalgams that provide the necessary pressure of mercury vapor in the discharge gap at temperatures well above the optimum for pure mercury. The ideas of replacing pure mercury with other metals were tested in the 1950s and 1960s, but, unfortunately, they did not give positive results. At the same time, work began on the development of the first powerful amalgam fluorescent lamps, which in those years, and especially now, turned out to be very popular. In the eighties of the last century there was an attempt to place a high-pressure lamp in ultraviolet disinfecting systems, but the low efficiency in the ultraviolet reduced the rest of their advantages to a minimum. Another attempt to use low-pressure lamps with mercury alloys – amalgam – made it possible to obtain several technical advantages at once. Thus, we can literally state that a certain technological breakthrough has arisen – the power of amalgam lamps has increased, so has the output of the ultraviolet and its efficiency in this area. It should be particularly noted that amalgam is more environmentally friendly, although it is more difficult to manufacture and dispose of, especially since the process of making amalgam is also associated with the use of pure mercury, its high-temperature treatment [5 – 8].
The direction of the design estimates (from the fluid to the lamp and otherwise) depends on the solution of direct and inverse problems. It should also be emphasized that such practical issues arise in a wide variety of ways quite often, and specialists in this field need ready-made standard solutions. Such tasks with solutions on water and air disinfection with a mercury lamp assembly are widely practiced by A.L. Wasserman in his works , they greatly simplify the work of designers. The authors hope that the proposed work will serve similar purposes, but they believe that examples of practical calculations, the arising errors, and assumptions are the subject of another work; this work is rather preliminary and defines a range of existing tasks and problems.
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