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During the design of earthwork complexes, they are usually divided into work fronts, which allows to plan them by flow method : into sections (parts) and maps within a plan; into tiers and layers by height. This is done when mounds are made from the soil developed by excavation or earth-moving machinery; if a mound is developed by hydromechanical method; at the vertical planning of areas and in other cases. The improvement of process efficiency, the reduction of labor and machine time cost can be conditioned by the accuracy of soil development and dumping, the calculations with the increased accuracy of earthwork volume [2, 3]. Due to the possibility of a number of modern earthmoving and transport machinery to carry out the processes with the accuracy of up to 5-10 mm, it is possible to exclude the manual clean-up of groove bottom from the technology of earthworks in many cases .
Area Vertical Layout Peculiarities During a vertical planning area design in the general case with the processes of soil loosening, development, movement, leveling and compaction with more than one layer, it is advisable to use the flow method of process organization . It provides the combination of individual processes by execution time on dedicated maps, the number of which must be at least two on excavation and mound sections. At the same time, in order to eliminate the need to remove excess soil from the site or to deliver the missing soil, a “zero balance” of earth masses is planned. Therefore, the planning planes are designed at appropriate levels according to the calculations. The project of vertical planning is carried out in the form of a “chess sheet” or in the form of a plan for soil transportation roads from certain square prisms (hereinafter referred to as “prisms”) of an excavation into certain mound prisms. With the variety of plans, it is advisable to design the plans with a minimum of transport work, under which the routes are not intersected with some possible rare exception. In case of equality of soils being moved along map pairs (excavation – mound), the volume of the mound soil is reduced to the compacted state during the calculations taking into account the residual loosening. When the process of soil development and moving is characterized by high machine capacity, its implementation is usually planned in two shifts per day. The number of machines required for this can be set on the basis of the specified periods of work, taking into account the shift in the execution time of the combined processes (loosening, leveling, soil compaction, etc.). As is known, these processes are performed by layers in general case.
According to the obtained research results, the use of more accurate positions of prism area dividing line in calculations belonging to adjacent maps will allow: 1. To plan and ensure equal machine productivity with vertical layout. 2. To exclude or minimize the cost of machine time to move the soil along unplanned irrational routes. 3. To exclude or minimize the cost of machine time for space preliminary or final planning. 4. To plan the movement of certain soil volumes, developed in the pits or quarries on certain maps of planned mounds with the corresponding volumes and precise boundaries. All of the abovementioned, as well as the planning of the optimal paths for soil movement in a vertical layout between the gravity centers of prism bodies instead of their horizontal projection gravity centers , will increase the level of calculation accuracy and the level of earthwork efficiency.
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