Vulnerabilities of Biometric Authentication Systems: A Survey

Author Name: Dr Puja S Prasad, Dr Vinit Kumar Gunjan, Dr S Arvind
Author Email: puja.s.prasad@gmail.com

Abstract

A biometric system offers solution for verification & identification of an individual identity. The methods used by biometric systems are mostly robust enough to overcome any vulnerability still it becomes prone to different kind of attacks which falls beyond the existing security algorithms implemented in the system resulting in breach of the system level security, leading to the loss or tampering of data. The aims of these attacks are to minimize the reliability of the biometric systems. In the present work we delineate the number of threats that stumble upon the biometric system. Additionally, we discuss about the algorithm which controls the biometric threats.  An emphasis on the techniques for detection of attacks is also discussed.

Keywords

Repudiation, Coercion, Pattern Recognition, Imposter, Cryptography.

Introduction

Authentication of a person or an individual is of supreme requirement in numerous government and civilian’s applications where some errors in recognising a person can cost too much. Few areas of such applications are, access to nuclear facilities, international border control, issuance of passports, airport security as well as driver licences, etc. Conventionally, old method of authenticating a person using combination of Knowledge based security i.e,  PINs/Password and token-based security like smart card has been used to authenticate the identity of an individual. But there are number of problems associated with this type of authentication scheme as it very difficult to use similar   password for long time as it become vulnerable to imposter. Carrying token-based identity is not   very safe, if it is lost then it may be used by some other person. In large scale application where there is a need to authenticate thousands of individuals per day then checking each parson identity cars are too hectic and time consuming. In this case biometric authentication provides a very good solution. Biometrics is the skill of establishing or determining an identity based on the physiological or behavioural traits of an individual. These traits include fingerprints, face, iris, signature, hand geometry, voice, etc. In combination with traditional authentication process, biometrics is a strong tool for identifying person identity [1].

Conclusion

In this paper we discuss about number of biometric attacks that overall affect the authentication process. This paper also highlights about working of biometric system and the number of modules that worked together for authenticating a person. Different phases are there and all these phases are vulnerable to different types of attack. This paper also discusses   about different points of attack and their solution. Different techniques for resisting the attack is also discussed in this paper.

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