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To investigate the microscopical, Phytochemical (Qualitative and Quantitative) and In-vitro antioxidant studies of hydro alcohol (70%), Aqueous, Ethyl acetate, Chloroform, Pet – ether and total saponin fractions of aerial parts of Cestrum aurantiacum (C.aurantiacum) and Solanum mauritianum (S. mauritianum). The Phytochemical quantification of the total phenolic, flavanoid and alkaloid contents were estimated using gallic acid, rutin and atropine as standard; Total saponin content was isolated and estimated by using gravimetric analysis; In-vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated for extracts by using different free radicals (ABTS and DPPH) assay techniques. S. mauritianum aerial parts hydro- ethanol (70%) extract have more phenolic content, C.aurantiacum aerial parts hydro-ethanol extract have more of alkaloid content, flavanoid and saponin content. The total saponin fractions showed potent IC50 values of 55.69 ug/ml and 54.99 ug/ml for ABTS assay and IC50 values of 119.95 ug/ml and 101.68 ug/ml for DPPH assay. The cytotoxic assay was carried for the total saponins on MCF-7 and HCT-116 cell lines and showed potent cytotoxic activity of 212±0.23 ug/mL and 67±1.32 ug/mL on MCF-7 cell lines and on HCT-116 cell lines with 208±0.34 ug /mL and 308±0.47ug/mL. Conclusion: In present study, we found that the selected plants posses’ good amount of phenolics, alkaloids, flavanoids and saponins, among all the fractions the total saponin fractions showed better antioxidant activity in compare to other fractions ,The fractions also showed a good In-vitro cytotoxic activity on MCF-7 cell lines and moderate against HCT-116 cell lines in comparison to standard Salvicine
Antioxidant studies, In-vitro Cytotoxic assay, Cestrum aurantiacum, Phytochemical screening and Solanum mauritianum
The universal role of plants in the treatment of disease is exemplified by their employment in all the major systems of medicine irrespective of the underlying philosophical premise. Undoubtedly the plant kingdom still holds many species of plants containing substances of medicinal value, which have yet to be discovered; large numbers of plants are constantly being screened for their possible pharmacological value (particularly for their Antioxidant , Anti-inflammatory, Hypotensive, Hypoglycemic, Amoebicidal, Anti-fertility, Cytotoxic, Antibiotic and Anti-parkinsonism properties). Phytopharmacists with a multidisciplinary background are able to make valuable contributions to these rapidly developing fields of study . The medicinal properties of plant species have made an outstanding contribution in the origin and evolution of many traditional herbal therapies. These traditional knowledge systems have started to disappear with the passage of time due to scarcity of written documents and relatively low income in these traditions . People return to herbal medicines which have fewer side effects. The instant rising demand of plant-based drugs is unfortunately creating heavy pressure on some selected high-value medicinal plant populations in the wild due to over-harvesting. Several of these medicinal plant species have slow growth rates, low population densities, and narrow geographic ranges therefore they are more prone to extinction. Conversely, because information on the use of plant species for therapeutic purpose has been passed from one generation to the next through oral tradition, this knowledge of therapeutic plants has started to decline and become obsolete through the lack of recognition by younger generations as a result of a shift in attitude and ongoing socio-economic changes [3, 4, 5]. The phytochemical, pharmacological and medicinal value of weed flora of Nilgiris has not been studied much in much depth so far. Hence, the present investigation provides an opportunity to profile chemical and pharmacological properties of the weeds .
Cestrum aurantiacum (orange Cestrum, “orange Jessamine”, orange-flowering Jessamine, and yellow Cestrum) is an extensive ever green solanaceous bushy weed of the Niligiris. However very less studies was carried out like antibacterial activity of this plant . But so far no phytochemical studies were carried out on this plant. Hence the present studies showed an intresting facts that this plant is a richest source of alkaloids, flavanoids, saponins and phenolics and found to be a source of antioxidant activity. Solanum mauritianum also called as Solanum auriculatum (Woolly Nightshade, Ear-leaved Nightshade (or “earleaf nightshade”), Flannel Weed, Bugweed, Tobacco Weed, Tobacco Bush, Wild Tobacco and Kerosene Plant) is an extensive ever green solanaceous shrubby weed of the Nilgiris distributed on the fallow lands. The plant is reported for its glycoalkaloidal fractions and having traditional claims for its anticancer activity [8 -9]. The main objective of our research was to investigate the phytochemical constituents and to find out the potent active phytochemical fractions from these weed plants for antioxidant and anticancer activity.
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