Genetic variability studies in F2 population of Groundnut (Arachis hypogeaea L.)

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Abstract

Present  experiment  was  conducted  to  study  the variability in F2  population of JL 24 X ICG 11337 and JL 24 X ICG 13919 groundnut. Among these F2 populations both the crosses showed high variability in the form of PCV, GCV heritability and GAM for mature pods per plant, total pods per plant, mature seeds per plant, haulm weight  per plant, LLS disease score at  75  DAS and  pod yield per  plant. It  was observed  that  selection  for  these  traits  would  be useful  in  the  genetic  improvement of  these  traits. High heritability coupled  with  moderate GAM for DS-90 in both the crosses. The cross JL 24 X ICG 11337 recorded high heritability and genetic advance as per cent of mean for DS-102. The result indicates that gains through selection is possible in this cross this may be due to the resistant parent, ICG 11337 may contribute gains through selection for LLS disease score at 102 DAS

Introduction

Groundnut (Arachis  hypogaea  L.)  is  an  important annual oilseed legume crop, valued as a rich source of protein, minerals and vitamins. is the major oilseed crop  in  India and  in  Andhra Pradesh.  India ranks second in groundnut production after China with an area of 4.93 million hectares and a production of 5.64 million tons during 2010 (FAOSTAT, 2012). But the average groundnut yield in the country is low (1.14t/ha) compared to world average and that of China. The productivity is considered to be low because of number of constraints like abiotic (frequent droughts) and biotic stresses (attacks by pests and diseases). The low productivity of the crop is ascribed mainly due to two major foliar diseases namely late leaf spot (causal organism: Phaeoisariopsis personata [(Berk. and Curt.) Deighton]) and rust (causal organism: Puccinia arachidicola Speg.). These two diseases often occur  together and  causes up  to  50-70% of yield losses in the crop (Subrahmanyam et al., 1985). Development of cultivars resistant/tolerant to late leaf spot could be effective in decreasing the production costs, improving production quality and reducing the detrimental effects of chemicals on our ecosystem. Genetic variability is the basic requirement for crop improvement  as   this   provides   wider   scope   for selection.    Thus,    effectiveness   of    selection    is dependent upon the nature, extent and magnitude of genetic variability present in material and the extent to   which  it  is   heritable.  In  the  present  study, variability and other genetic parameters were studied.

Conclusion

The high genetic variability in the form of phenotypic coefficient   of   variation   (PCV)   and   genotypic

coefficient of variation (GCV) was observed for number of mature pods per plant, total pods per plant, immature pods per plant, immature seeds per plant, mature seeds per plants, haulm weight per plant and LLS disease score at 75 DAS and pod yield per plant

of all F2  Populations. High heritability of these traits indicates that whatever variation occurred is mainly genetic  and  less  influenced  by  the  environment

(Rudra Naik et al. 2009). Therefore, priority should be given for these traits during selection.

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