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Tissue engineering heart valve is a novel experimental concept to develop ideal heart valve substitutes. Conventional mechanical valve used for replacement require the anti-coagulation therapy which decreases quality of life. Now a days bioprosthetic heart valve replacement are either of animal origin such as porcine pulmonary or aortic valves and bovine pericardial valves or taken from human donors. But both were having lifelong anticoagulation therapy associated with a substantial risk of spontaneous bleeding and embolism. Further these valves lack in growth potential in general. The new methodologies for a decellularization of porcine pulmonary and aortic valves were generated from porcine pulmonary. In this aortic valves were decellularized by deterging cell extraction using sodium dodecyl sulfate and dimethyl sulfoxide. Further analysis of decellularization were performed by Hematoxylin-and-Eosin (stain) and 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (stain). The decellularization method shows the complete removal of the original cells from the scaffolds. Thus porcine pulmonary, aortic valves were completely decellularized by detergent extraction procedure.
Tissue engineering; heart valve; decellularization
The loss or failure of cardiac tissue is one of the most devastating and costly problem in human health care system. The availability of transplantable donor organs is a constant challenge for transplant surgeon to fulfill the overgrowing demand of transplant every year. Importantly transplant related mortality and morbidity is very high observed in patients. The regenerative capacity of human heart valves is greatly compromised during pathological condition. Heart valve replacement is found the only option for today’s line of treatment. This technique is employed in healing many condition including rheumatic heart disease, calcified heart valves, heart valve stenosis, congenital heart disease etc.
A current therapeutic option available for patient with heart valve disease is to replace mechanical biosynthetic heart valve. Recently the mechanical biosynthetic heart valve displayed as with good structural durability but are associated with the risk of prosthetic valve endocarditis, thromboembolic complication caused by their non physiological surfaces and flow abnormalities. Life-long anticoagulation therapy is necessary associated with a substantial risk of spontaneous bleeding and embolism, particularly in patient over 70 years. These valves also lack the growth potential for same.  Current studies are based on well-organized cellular repopulation of decellularised porcine pulmonary valves development. In this the notable part includes the observation of a complete and sustained endothelial cell lining on inflow and outflow sides of the tissue engineering valves under moderate physical load. This resulted in clinical needs for a substitute in current graft material to replace diseased heart valves. Thus, tissue engineering offers the great potential of providing heart valves that can be used to replace diseased and damaged native heart valves. This all is achieved by decellularized scaffolds makeup. An advantage of an engineered heart valve includes the cellular viability, infection resistance and non thrombogenecity . Normal heart valves are vital and dynamic tissue composed of specialized cells and extracellular matrix (ECM). During local mechanical force that cells and ECM responds and remodel themselves. Lifelong opening and closing of the leaflets induces changes in the shape, dimensions and supporting valvular structures. Tissue engineering field provides opportunity to restore the normal function of cells after seeding on the scaffold .
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