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Prostate cancer is one of the major threats to the males in the current generation. The addiction of people for the sedentary life style, Junk food consumption, exposure to radiations and pollution and all the more the hereditary like factors play a vital role in the disease onset. Apart from these generalized causes Genetic mutations in particular SNP to the major genes results in the diseased condition. The current study considers this genetic SNP based onset for the analysis. The blood samples were collected from the Diseased (Test) and Healthy (Control) individuals. The DNA was extracted and purified. The samples were amplified with the specific primers targeting the SNP region. The SNP selected for the current study was rs799923 obtained from NCBI data base. This SNP occurs in the Chromosome: 17: 43099914 and causes a significant change in the base G in the place of wild allele A. All the amplicons were sequenced for the identification of SNP in the samples. The sequences obtained were further aligned to compare the SNP among the same. The results showed the presence of SNP only in diseased samples at the rate of 12 out of 12 considered. However all the control samples did not show the SNP. This results infers that the SNP is associated with the onset of the disease by being one of the several causes. The results can be further conformed by increasing the sample size.
Prostate, SNP, Polymorphism, Amplicons, Mutations, Genetic
The prostate is an exocrine gland of the male reproductive system, and is present under the bladder, in front of the rectum. The size of the prostate changes with age. It grows rapidly during puberty, fueled by the rise in male hormones (called androgens) in the body, such as testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT). The prostate usually stays about the same size or grows slowly in adults, as long as male hormones are present. In younger men, it is about the size of a walnut, but it can be much larger in older men. The prostate’s job is to make some of the fluid that protects and nourishes sperm cells in semen, making the semen more liquid. Just behind the prostate are glands called seminal vesicles that make most of the fluid for semen. The urethra, which is the tube that carries urine and semen out of the body through the penis, goes through the center of the prostate.
Cancer occurring to the prostate gland is termed as Prostate Cancer. Early prostate cancer usually causes no symptoms. But more advanced prostate cancers can sometimes cause symptoms, such as:
- Problems urinating, including a slow or weak urinary stream or the need to urinate more often, especially at night.
- Blood in the urine
- Trouble getting an erection (erectile dysfunction)
- Pain in the hips, back (spine), chest (ribs), or other areas from cancer spread to bones
The most common symptoms of prostate cancer is generally Because of the prostates location in the body, prostate cancer is often accompanied by a number of unique symptoms. The prostate is located just below the bladder in the lower pelvis. As urine empties out of the bladder it travels through a thin tube called the urethra. At the very beginning of the urethra, just as it exits the bladder, it passes directly through the prostate. As the prostate enlarges due to cancer or another problem, the urethra is pinched tighter and tighter within the prostate.
As the tube narrows, urine has a much harder time making its way through the urethra and out of the body. Several types of cells are found in the prostate, but almost all prostate cancers develop from the gland cells (the cells that make the prostate fluid that is added to the semen). The medical term for a cancer that starts in gland cells is adenocarcinoma. Some prostate cancers can grow and spread quickly, but most grow slowly. In fact, autopsy studies show that many older men (and even some younger men) who died of other causes also had prostate cancer that never affected them during their lives. In many cases neither they nor their doctors even knew they had it. It is important to know the stage of the cancer, or how far it has spread. Knowing the cancer stage helps the doctor define prognosis – it also helps when selecting which therapies to use. The most common system today for determining this is the TNM (Tumor/Nodes/Metastases). This involves defining the size of the tumor, how many lymph nodes are involved, and whether there are any other metastases. Most of the causes may be Genetic and the current study aims to detect the association of SNP in the onset of Prostate cancer in specific to the SNP rs799923.
In the present work the SNP that corresponds to rs799923 at Chromosome: 17: 43099914 has been detected in 12 samples all of which were having Prostate Cancer (Sample p1-p12) .All of them were found to have G instead of A at 463rd Position of the tex shade. Remaining all normal samples were having A. The Allelic Frequencies of G & A in the diseased population were 0.83 and 0.17 respectively while those in Controls were 0.40 and 0.60 respectively. Further extensive study on wider range of samples is recommended
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