PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL FROM CUSTARD APPLE (ANNONA SQUAMOSA) SEEDS

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Abstract

India is one of the top countries with respect to the increasing population. In accordance to its increasing population there is a simultaneous increase in the demand for the non-renewable resources.  In order to maintain the biological balance and satisfy the needs of the increasing population a search for the alternative energy sources is must. One such path is the production of renewable resources. Keeping in view the current need of the population the current work was aimed to produce biodegradable, Biodiesel obtained for the organic waste, the spent seeds of Custard apple. This source can be a very good utility product as there is no special investment required and additionally it can be a source of waste clearance. Here a pure laboratory protocol has been employed to extract the vegetable oil from the seeds of the custard apple. The oil is further treated with the special reagents as per the SOP and the esterification was performed to obtain the diesel along with the useful bio products the soap and glycerine.

Introduction

Biodiesel

Biodiesel is one of the alternative fuels usable in any conventional diesel engine with a little or no modification to the engine or fuel system. Increased utilization of renewable biofuels results in significant micro-economic benefits to both the urban and rural sectors. Also it results in a substantial reduction of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and particulate matter. A renewable fuel can be derived from vegetable oils, used oils and animal fats. Biodiesel is not the same thing as raw vegetable oil; rather, it is produced by a chemical process which removes the glycerine and converts the oil into methyl esters. Biodiesel can be used in any concentration with petroleum- based diesel fuel with little or no modification to existing diesel engines. These blended fuels are referred to as “biodiesel blends”, and include the percentage of biodiesel in the blend, such as B2 (2%), B5 (5%) or B20 (20%).

 

Biodiesel is defined as the mono-alkyl esters of fatty acids derived from vegetable oils oranimal fats(Knotheet al2006, Coronado et al2008) In simple terms, biodiesel is the product obtained when a vegetable oil or animal fat is chemically reacted with an alcohol to produce fatty acid alkyl esters. A catalyst such as sodium or potassium hydroxide is required for this reaction and glycerol is produced as a by-product.

 

Natural sources of biodiesel

The biodiesel is produced  from nonedible oils, which include Jatropha (Jatrophacurcas) oil, Karanja or Honge (Pongamiapinnata/glabra) seed oil, Polanga (Calophylluminophyllum) seed oil, Rubber (Heveabrasiliensis) seed oil, Mahua (Madhucaindica) oil, Tobacco (Nicotianatabacum) seed oil, Bitter almond (Prunusdulcis) oil, Castor (Ricinuscommunis) seed oil, Okra (Hibiscusesculentus) seed oil,Kusum (Schleicheratrijuga) oil, Simarouba (Simaroubaglauca), Milo (Thespesiapopulnea) seed oil , Milk thistle (Silybummarianum) seed oil , and wild safflower (Carthamusoxyacantha Bieb) seed oil. In the production process of biodiesel. Thecatalystconcentration, reaction time, and reaction temperature has been studied and optimized. The fuel properties of produced biodiesel have been investigated and compared with the standard specifications for assessing their feasibility to substitute the petroleum fuels

 

Custard apple

Annonasquamosa is also called as Sugar apple or Sweetsop. In some regions of world including India the Sugar apple is also called as Custard apple. Annonasquamosa is a small, semi-(or late) deciduous, much branched shrub or small tree 3 metres (9.8 fit) to 8 metres (26 fit) tall. The pulp of Custard apple is white tinged yellow, edible and sweetly aromatic. Each carpel contains an oblong, shiny and smooth dark brown to black, 1.3 centimetres (0.51 in) to 1.6 centimetres (0.63 in) long seed. There may be a total of 20 to 38, or perhaps more, seeds in the average fruit (Siddalingappaet al2014). Not only the fruit of custard apple but also its seeds have a lot of benefits. People who enjoy custard apple eat the flesh and pelt out the seeds. However sometimes while eating they tent to swallow a seed which could be very harmful; so custard apple are known to be slightly poisonous. These seeds constitute 1/3 of the weight of one custard apple.

In India Custard apple is cultivated in Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Bihar, Orissa and Tamilnadu. According to an estimate made by Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), custard apple trees are grown in about 40,000hectares and can yield about 4 lakh tones seeds. This in turn can yield 1.12 lakh tonnes oil (Mahalingappaet al. 2014) Custard apple growing regions include Assam, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu. According to a 2012 “Times of India” article, approximately 55,000 hectares are dedicated to custard apple cultivation. Pune’s Purandar Tehsil district accounts for almost 10 percent of this figure. Along with Maharashtra Gujarat is another large custard apple growing state. The fruit’s growing popularity will likely increase production figures substantially in the coming years.

 Conclusion

The above work involves the production of biodiesel from the seeds of the custard apple.  The vegetable oil was extracted from the seeds which wax processed for diesel extraction. The crude oil obtained was further purified using various techniques and the final product was analysed.  The pure diesel was analysed for its viscosity, Pour point, Specific Gravity, Flash point, Ash content, and Colour. All the properties were further compared with the standard ASTM values and commercial diesel values. It was found that all these parameters were within the standard range and comparable to the commercial diesel. Thus this procedure can be followed with several other vegetable products to obtain the renewable diesel.

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